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Plato

(c. 429–347bce). Greek philosopher. One of his shorter dialogues, the Cratylus, is the earliest full discussion in the Western tradition of the relations between words and ...

Plato

Plato   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
8 words

... ( see facing page...

PLATO

PLATO   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Astronomy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... Abbr. for PLanetary Transits and Oscillations ....

Plato

Plato (347 B.C.E.)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
170 words

...Plato (d. 347 B.C.E. ) Arabic Aflaton . Hellenistic philosopher, some of whose writings ( Timaeus , Republic , and Laws ) were partially translated into Arabic during the Middle Ages. Much was known of Plato's works through oral transmission as well. Thus, in his Philosophy of Plato , al-Farabi (d. 950 ) provided an extensive account of Plato's philosophy, identifying all of the dialogues now accepted as authentic and providing a reasonable explanation of the topic covered in each. Either because of his penchant for metaphysical investigations or due...

Plato

Plato (427–347)   Reference library

Bill LEADBETTER

Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
History
Length:
926 words

...did not receive it. Instead, Plato went home to Athens, returning to Syracuse only in response to Dionysius II’s repeated invitations. Plato stayed for some time, initially hoping to influence Dionysius II and to secure the return of Dion. However, Plato realized that Dionysius II was not terribly interested either in confronting the questions that Plato led him to or in the welfare of Dion. As a result, Plato determined to return home but secured his passage only with difficulty. Plato’s Sicilian experiences led to the composition of an open letter (Letter...

Plato

Plato   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Brontes

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...Plato , Revd Patrick Brontë 's Newfoundland dog (crossed with a water-spaniel), acquired by him ‘in the middle of 1855 —for £3-0-0’ (Lock & Dixon, p. 481). Plato was taken to Ireland by Nicholls after Mr Brontë 's death and died there in 1866 (Lock & Dixon, pp. 530,...

Plato

Plato (c.427–c.347 bc)   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
224 words

...Plato sought to educate Dionysius II as a philosopher-king and to set up an ideal political system under him, but the venture failed. Meanwhile, in Athens, Plato set up his famous Academy ( c .387 bc ). In the Academy he taught several young people, including Aristotle . In addition to being a philosopher of great influence, Plato wrote in the form of dialogues, in which Socrates genially interrogates another person, demolishing their arguments. All of Plato's 36 works survive. His most famous dialogues include Gorgias (on rhetoric as an art of...

Plato

Plato   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Western Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
134 words

... (late 5th–4th centuries bc ). Greek philosopher. In his Republic , Plato introduces the concept of the perfect Form, created by God. What exists on earth is only an imperfect imitation of this ideal; art as secondary mimesis is necessarily even further removed from this ‘Form’. This theory is developed further in his Sophist where sculptors are attacked for ignoring truth. Thus, Plato was important for the development of an art criticism based on ‘moralistic’ aesthetics. This aesthetic is tied in turn to a dual conception of the concept of...

Plato

Plato   Reference library

Christopher Janaway, Paul Woodruff, Paul Woodruff, Julius Moravcsik, and Julius Moravcsik

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
14,205 words

... . To explore Plato’s philosophy of art, the first of its kind in the history of Western philosophy, this entry comprises five essays: Plato and the Arts Plato on Mimēsis Plato’s Use of Poetry Plato on the Effects of Art Plato and Modern Aesthetics The first essay is an overview of Plato’s thought in general. The next three essays focus on issues that were central to his thinking about art (a term Plato, of course, did not use the way we now do, anymore than he ever used the word aesthetics): mimesis, the use of poetry, and the effects of art. The...

Plato

Plato   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...end of prose 12). It later became proverbial. Chaucer's ascription of it in The Manciple's Tale to ‘the wise Plato’ perhaps suggests that it may already have been a maxim. The philosopher appears in an alchemical context in The Canon's Yeoman's Tale (VIII.1448–71), where the dialogue between Plato and a disciple seems to have been expanded by Chaucer from a passage in a Latin version of a commentary by ‘ Senior ’. Here Chaucer makes Plato refer to Christ. In The House of Fame there are two cosmological references. ‘Daun Platon’ is linked with...

Plato

Plato (427–347 bce)   Reference library

Australian Law Dictionary (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Law
Length:
183 words

...Plato ( 427–347 bce ) Among the earliest foundational ancient Greek thinkers, along with socrates and aristotle , whose ideas informed the natural law tradition in which nature was the fundamental, organic principle. However, while Aristotle was an influential proponent of the rule of law , Plato was famously critical of rules for their own sake. Plato wrote only as dialogues and recollections, not in treatise form. He praised the virtues of intelligence in those with power, and described the use of law in government as ‘like a stubborn, stupid...

Plato

Plato (424/3–c.348/7)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to English Literature (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature
Length:
529 words

...as a passionate but asexual joint search for the truth.) Plato's influence on European philosophy and literature is largely indirect: through Augustine , through the Florentine Platonists, but above all through the Neoplatonists , especially Plotinus , who for many was indistinguishable from Plato. Central, for English literature, was the neo‐Platonizing Thomas Taylor , who completed the first English translation of the whole corpus ( 1804 ): S. T. Coleridge and P. B. Shelley could read Plato for themselves, but Coleridge also read Taylor's...

Plato

Plato (427–347)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
2,608 words

... D. Ross , Plato's Theory of Ideas (Oxford, 1951); I. M. Crombie , An Examination of Plato's Doctrines (2 vols., 1962–3); R. E. Allen (ed.), Studies in Plato's Metaphysics (1965); G. Vlastos , Plato's Universe (Oxford, 1975); T. Irwin , Plato's Moral Theory: The Early and Middle Dialogues ( ibid. , 1977); I. Murdoch , The Fire and the Sun: Why Plato Banished the Artists (ibid., 1977); R. Kraut (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Plato (Cambridge, 1992). On individual works, J. Annas , An Introduction to Plato's Republic...

Plato

Plato (c.424/3–c.348/7 bc)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Companion to English Literature (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Literature
Length:
398 words

... ( c. 424/3– c. 348/7 bc ) With Socrates , who taught him, and Aristotle , whom he taught, a dominant philosophical figure of classical antiquity, author of numerous dialogues and founder of the Athenian Academy, a school formally closed by Justinian in ad 529 . The dialogues—‘Socrates’ mostly leads; Plato himself is permanently absent—fall stylistically into three chronological groups: (I) Defence of Socrates (‘ Apology ’: actually not a dialogue), Charmides , Cratylus , Crito , Euthydemus , Euthyphro , Gorgias , Hippias Minor , Ion , ...

Plato

Plato (c.429–c.347 bc)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
150 words

... ( c .429– c .347 bc ) Greek philosopher . He was a disciple of Socrates and the teacher of Aristotle, and he founded the Academy in Athens. His system of thought had a profound influence on Christian theology and Western philosophy. His philosophical writings, which cover metaphysics, politics, and ethics, are presented in the form of dialogues, with Socrates as the principal speaker; they include the Symposium and the Phaedo . An integral part of his thought is the theory of ‘ideas’ or ‘forms’, in which abstract entities or universals are contrasted...

Plato

Plato (c.429–347)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
784 words

.... On return from Sicily he began formal teaching at what became the Academy . Details of Plato’s life are surprisingly sparse, partly because of the Athenian convention against naming contemporaries in literary works; Aristotle , for example, although a student at the Academy for some twenty years, gives us no information about Plato’s life. As a result the dating of his works has to be established on internal evidence, and is subject to scholarly dispute. Plato’s fame rests on his Dialogues which are all preserved. They are usually divided into three...

Plato

Plato (1) (c.429–347 bc) (of Athens)   Reference library

Julia Annas

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
3,875 words

...L. Owen's influential articles on Plato can be found in his collected papers , Logic, Science and Dialectic (1986). There have been several recent collections of articles; see G. Fine (ed.), Plato 1 and Plato 2 (1999); E. Wagner (ed.), Essays on Plato's Psychology (2001); G. Fine , Plato on Knowledge and Forms (2003). See also M. Ostwald and J. Lynch , CAH 6 2 (1994), 602 ff.; R. B. Rutherford , The Art of Plato (1995; on literary aspects); C. Gill and M. M. McCabe (eds.), Form and Argument in Late Plato (1996); J. Annas and C. Rowe ...

Plato

Plato (c.429 bc)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
1,211 words

...of true beauty. W. Verdenius : Mimesis: Plato’s Doctrine of Aesthetic Imitation (Leiden, 1949) W. D. Ross : Plato’s Theory of Forms, An Examination of Plato’s Doctrines , ed. I. Crombie (London, 1962–3) G. Sörbom : Mimesis and Art (Uppsala, 1966) W. K. C. Guthrie : A History of Greek Philosophy , iv and v (Cambridge, 1975 and 1978) I. Murdoch : The Fire and the Sun (Oxford, 1977) J. Moravcsik and P. Temko , eds: Plato on Beauty, Wisdom and the Arts (New Jersey, 1982) S. Halliwell : Plato, Republic: Book X (Bristol, 1988) D. T....

Plato

Plato (c. 429–347bce)   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
57 words

... ( c. 429–347 bce ). Greek philosopher. One of his shorter dialogues, the Cratylus , is the earliest full discussion in the Western tradition of the relations between words and things. He was also the first ancient author to speak of tekhnē grammatikē and to indicate the distinction between what were later called “subject” and “predicate.” Anna Morpurgo...

Plato

Plato   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Scientists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology
Length:
485 words

...its closure by the emperor Justinian in ad 529. On the death of Dionysius I in 367 Plato returned to Sicily at the invitation of Dion to try to educate Dionysius II as the new philosopher-king, attempting once more in 361. The visits were disastrous and ended with Plato dismissing Sicily as a place where “happiness was held to consist in filling oneself full twice a day and never sleeping alone at night.” It is virtually impossible to overestimate the impact of Plato on Western thought. His views, preserved and transmitted through the distorting medium...

Plato

Plato   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
13,843 words

... To explore Plato's philosophy of art, the first of its kind in the history of Western philosophy, this entry comprises five essays: Survey of Thought Plato on Mimēsis Plato's Use of Poetry Plato on the Effects of Art Plato and Modern Aesthetics The first essay is an overview of Plato's thought in general. The next three essays focus on issues that were central to his thinking about art (a term Plato, of course, did not use the way we now do, anymore than he ever used the word aesthetics): “mimēsis,” “the use of poetry,” and “the effects of art.” The final...

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