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Persian War

1856.

The Crimean War ended in March 1856 but a new war with Persia followed in November after the shah had seized Herat, a disputed city in the north-west of ...

Persian Wars

Persian Wars   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
12 words

... Wars See greece , prehistory and history of ( Archaic Age...

Persian Wars

Persian Wars (499–479 bc)   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
86 words

... Wars ( 499–479 bc ) Conflict between the ancient Greeks and Persians. In 499 bc the Ionian cities of Asia Minor rebelled against Persian rule. Athens sent a fleet to aid them. Persian Emperor Darius I invaded Greece but suffered a defeat at Marathon ( 490 bc ). In 480 bc his successor, Xerxes , burned Athens but withdrew after defeats at Salamis and Plataea ( 479 bc ). Under Athenian leadership, the Greeks fought on, regaining territory in Thrace and Anatolia, until the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War ( 431 bc...

Persian Wars

Persian Wars   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
942 words
Illustration(s):
1

... Wars The Persian Wars, more accurately called the Greco-Persian Wars, became a pivotal moment in history for the Greeks. To the Persians, the conflicts were necessary but minor skirmishes and far less important than, for example, the maintenance of control in Egypt. Much of our narrative of the wars comes from Herodotus and other Greek authors who had clear biases; consequently, their works must be used with caution. The Aegean area was important to both the Greek states (particularly Athens) and the Persian Empire. By the late sixth century, Athens had...

Persian Wars

Persian Wars   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Classical studies
Length:
904 words

... Wars A series of conflicts between the Greek states and the Persian empire. For the early history of the Persian empire see Cyrus (1) ; Cambyses ; and Darius . The wars can be said to have begun in 490 bc , when the Persian king Darius invaded mainland Greece; they effectively ended in 479 bc when his son Xerxes, having suffered comprehensive defeats on land and at sea, was forced to withdraw from the Aegean (although peace was not agreed for another thirty years). However, conflict between Greeks and Persians really originated in 499 , when...

Persian Wars

Persian Wars   Reference library

John F. Lazenby

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,620 words

... Wars , term usually applied to the two Persian attempts to conquer Greece in 490 and 480 / 79 bc . The origins of the conflict go back to mainland Greek involvement in the rebellion of the Asiatic Greeks against Persian rule, earlier in the 5th cent. ( See ionian revolt ), but although Herodotus (1) dramatizes their desire for revenge, the Persians already ruled many European Greeks in Thrace and Macedonia , and their primary reason for seeking to conquer the rest may well have been that their rule over existing Greek subjects would never be...

Persian Wars

Persian Wars   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,135 words

... Wars , the two Persian expeditions against Greece in 490 and 480/79 bc . The origins of the conflict go back to mainland Greek involvement in the rebellion of the Asiatic Greeks against Persian rule, earlier in the 5th cent. ( see ionian revolt ), but although Herodotus dramatizes their desire for revenge, the Persians already ruled many European Greeks in Thrace and Macedonia , and their primary reason for seeking to conquer the rest may well have been that their rule over existing Greek subjects would never be secure while others remained...

Persian‐Wars tradition

Persian‐Wars tradition   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
138 words

...‐Wars tradition The glory‐days of the Persian Wars loomed large in defining mainland Greek identities until well into the Roman age. In Thucydides (2) 5th‐cent. Athens justified its empire by them, in the tradition of the epitaphios they are a cause for Athenian boasting (accompanied by distortion of the facts), and in Aristophanes for nostalgia. In the 4th cent. Macedon 's rise prompted rhetorical appeals by Athenian politicians to ancestral resolve and self‐sacrifice in the Persian Wars. Philip II and Alexander (2) the Great countered this...

Persian-Wars tradition

Persian-Wars tradition   Reference library

Antony J. S. Spawforth

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
298 words

...-Wars tradition Greek victories over Persian ‘barbarians’ loomed large in defining mainland Greek identities until well into the Roman age. In Thucydides (2) 5th-cent. Athens justified its empire by them (1. 74. 4), in the tradition of the epitaphios they are a cause for Athenian boasting (accompanied by distortion of the facts), and in Aristophanes (1) for nostalgia. In the 4th cent. Macedonia 's rise prompted rhetorical appeals by Athenian politicians to ancestral resolve and self-sacrifice in the Persian wars, notably after the fall of ...

Greek-Persian wars

Greek-Persian wars   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
307 words

...Persian wars Conflicts that dominated the history of the eastern Mediterranean in the first half of the 5th century bc . In 499 bc the Greek cities of Ionia in Asia Minor revolted from the Persian empire. With some short-lived support from Athens and Eretria, they captured and burnt the important city of Sardis, but gradually the Persians regained control, the Greek fleet being finally crushed at Lade in 494. In 490 a Persian expeditionary force sailed across the Aegean. The capture of Eretria—the first goal—was achieved after a week-long siege and...

Graeco-Persian wars

Graeco-Persian wars   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
1,025 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Persian wars (540s–330s bc ). The Greeks first came into conflict with the Persians in Asia Minor, as a result of the conquest of Lydia by Cyrus ‘the Great’, probably in 546 bc . Following an abortive Lydian revolt in which some of them participated, many of their towns were taken by assault, and the rest acquiesced in Persian rule. In the early years of the 5th century bc there was a widespread rebellion from Byzantium to Caria, in which Cyprus, which had a substantial Greek population, joined. On the mainland of Asia Minor, with the advantage of...

Persian–Roman Wars

Persian–Roman Wars   Reference library

Doug Lee

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...and vulnerable direction. In 622, he slowed Persian momentum by defeating an army in Armenia, and then in 624 advanced through Armenia into the Caucasus, winning support there and defeating three Persian armies in 625. Hoping to end the war decisively, Persian forces acting in concert with the Avars launched an unsuccessful assault on Constantinople in 626. Meanwhile, with Persian forces stretched across many fronts, Heraclius and his Türk allies advanced south from the Caucasus towards the Persian heartlands. In December 627 he won a decisive...

Persian Wars: the Persian viewpoint

Persian Wars: the Persian viewpoint   Reference library

Pierre Briant and Amélie Kuhrt

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,438 words

... Wars: the Persian viewpoint One of the great problems for the historian is the absence of any direct reflection of the Persian angle on this celebrated conflict. In fact, besides the Bisitun inscription and relief, which recounts Darius I 's accession, the Persians have not left us any narrative accounts of their history. The changes in the lists of provinces which appear regularly in the royal inscriptions cannot be used as a reliable criterion for tracing the growth or shrinkage of Persian territorial power. We find the only Persian version of the...

Persian Wars: the Persian viewpoint

Persian Wars: the Persian viewpoint   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
775 words

... Wars: the Persian viewpoint A big problem for the historian is the absence of any direct reflection of the Persian angle on this celebrated conflict. In fact, apart from the Bisitun inscription and relief, which recounts Darius I 's accession, the Persians have left us no narrative accounts of their history. The changes in the lists of provinces which appear regularly in the royal inscriptions cannot be used as a reliable criterion for tracing the growth or shrinkage of Persian territorial power. Herodotus (1) is practically our only source. For...

Persian Wars

Persian Wars   Quick reference

Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
132 words
Persian Wars

Persian Wars   Quick reference

New Oxford American Dictionary (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
126 words
Persian Wars

Persian Wars   Reference library

The Canadian Oxford Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
91 words
Persian Wars

Persian Wars   Reference library

The New Zealand Oxford Dictionary

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
135 words
Persian Wars

Persian Wars   Reference library

Australian Oxford Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
149 words
Persian Wars

Persian Wars  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The two Persian expeditions against Greece in 490 and 480/79 bc. The origins of the conflict go back to mainland Greek involvement in the rebellion of the Asiatic Greeks against Persian rule, earlier ...
Persian War

Persian War (1856)   Reference library

J. A. Cannon

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
68 words

... War , 1856 . The Crimean War ended in March 1856 but a new war with Persia followed in November after the shah had seized Herat, a disputed city in the north-west of Afghanistan. Sir James Outram led a punitive expedition of 6,000 in January 1857 . Peace was signed on 4 March whereby the shah withdrew from Herat and promised not to intervene in Afghanistan. J. A....

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