You are looking at 1-18 of 18 entries  for:

  • All: Perpendicular style x
  • Archaeology x
clear all

View:

perpendicular style

perpendicular style   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
71 words

... style [De] A style of architecture found in Britain in the late 14th century ad through to the 16th century ad in which there is a strong emphasis on the vertical elements of construction and decoration. Pointed arches common in earlier centuries are flattened and arches and windows become framed by rectangular outlines. Towers of great height are added to ecclesiastical buildings and ceilings and roofs are often richly...

῾Ein-Zippori, Tel

῾Ein-Zippori, Tel   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
786 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in Iron II. Stratum II (tenth century bce ) contained a large, well-constructed, multiroomed building in field I that has been partially excavated ( see figure 1 ). The complex (at least 11 × 15 m) is oriented northeast-southwest, with two primary interior dividing walls perpendicular to each other. One interior wall carries a stone bench along its northern face. Both walls have well-hewn stones as door jambs. The complex has two building phases. The destruction debris found within the complex included a great deal of burned mud brick. In field II a series...

῾Izbet Ṣarṭah

῾Izbet Ṣarṭah   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,210 words
Illustration(s):
1

...ASOR Archives) At the center of the settlement a large, four-room house (16 × 12 m) was preserved up to three courses of stone with outer walls as much as 1.4 m thick. Three long, connecting rooms were separated by two rows of stone pillars. An enclosed room was situated perpendicular to them along the south wall. The floors of the side rooms were made out of stone slabs; the rest were of bedrock or beaten earth. The only entrance was at the northern end of the long western wall, and a small room was attached to the house at its north-west corner ( see ...

Anchors

Anchors   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
2,249 words
Illustration(s):
3

...about anchor arm construction with the discovery of a fragmentary anchor on the Chrétienne “C” wreck (Joncheray, 1975 ). Arms were bound fastened to anchor shanks with Z-shaped hook joints that were, in turn, secured by mortise-and-tenon joints (figure 3.5). Pegs placed perpendicularly through tenons in anchor arms locked them in position. When arm/shank joints loosened with wear, reinforcement collars (figure 3.4) poured onto anchors held the anchor arms in position (Haldane, 1986 ). Pliny records cork floats on lines used to mark an anchor's location on...

Building Materials and Techniques

Building Materials and Techniques   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
17,911 words
Illustration(s):
10

...architectural province. Well-known monuments evidencing this style are the Khazne tomb facade at Petra and the Colonnaded Palace at Ptolemais in Cyrenaica, both difficult to date and assigned anywhere between later first century bce to second century ce . This illustrates that the style survived the establishment of Roman rule in some regions and probably was only supplanted by the imperial organized “prefabricated marble” style of the second century onward. The Alexandrian style was light and graceful and may be thought of as ancient Rococo. It was...

Furniture and Furnishings

Furniture and Furnishings   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
10,489 words
Illustration(s):
7

... Malku's wife (Malku was an important Palmyrene) sits on a cathedra . From the end of the second century ce , a Palmyran relief shows the goddess Leto seated on a similar basket chair. The cathedra was also used as a litter for the wealthy. Two types of stools, one with perpendicular legs and a second with folding legs, are known from the classical Greek world and continued to be used commonly in the Roman period. One of the few existing examples of a Roman-period stool is represented by a wooden leg excavated at Rifeh, Egypt. A cross-legged stool with a...

Musical Instruments

Musical Instruments   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
7,514 words
Illustration(s):
3

...deep-relief terracotta plaques. The figures are naked but adorned with a wig or headcover and a disk (drum) is pressed against the chest with both hands (Rashid, 1984 , ills. 91–95); and as bell-shaped figures dressed in a long gown, beating the drum, which is in a position perpendicular to the body (Meyers, 1987 ). Preserved only in Israel/Palestine, there are more than forty items of the first type and some fifteen of the second extant. Mixed types appear on Cyprus and in Syria: pillar figurines with a disk pressed against the chest and figurines on votive...

Sepphoris

Sepphoris   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
6,809 words
Illustration(s):
7

...sides of the summit. Eastern insulae. As early as the second century ce , the original settlement on the summit had spread to the east, on the adjacent plateau. Two broad streets—an east–west decumanus and a north–south cardo —and several smaller streets parallel and perpendicular to these main thoroughfares created spacious orthogonal grid with blocks, or insulae, of buildings. The cardo (13.7 m wide) is paved with hard white limestone blocks set in diagonal rows. The original Roman pavers, with deep wheel ruts testifying to centuries of wagon...

Cities

Cities   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
19,325 words
Illustration(s):
5

...foundations cut through all the preceding walls on its eastern side. Square towers, set about 30 m apart and built in the same style, projected beyond the wall. Two of these towers have been uncovered so far, the earliest examples of their type in Palestine. The new wall's distinctive style and towers are unmistakably Greek innovations. The change at Dor from fortifications built in the Phoenician style to those in the Greek style represents the final stage in the transformation of the Palestinian city from a largely “oriental” city to a Hellenistic one—a...

Egyptian Aramaic Texts

Egyptian Aramaic Texts   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
12,108 words

...was a distinctive mode of writing for each type of document. Letters and contracts were written in a single column on a roll held vertically, perpendicular to the fibers and parallel to the joins. Although a letter frequently continued on the verso, contracts rarely did (exceptions are TAD B1.1; 2.3; 3.3; 4.4). All other texts were written in columns on a roll held horizontally, parallel to the fibers and perpendicular to the joins. At the end of the fifth century a few contracts were also written this way ( TAD B4.6; 7.1–3). Letters. Letters may be...

Gothic

Gothic   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
87 words

...[De] Architectural style characterized by pointed arches and the vault, succeeding the Norman or Romanesque style at the end of the 12th century ad . Subdivided into three periods: early (13th century ad ), characterized by the lancet window without tracery; the decorated Gothic ( c .1290–1350 ), in which windows have first geometrical, then flowing, tracery; and the perpendicular ( c .1350–1530 ), where tracery has strong vertical lines. The Gothic style was followed by the Tudor style, but was later revived as neo‐Gothic or Gothic during the 19th...

Death and Burial in the Jewish Diaspora

Death and Burial in the Jewish Diaspora   Reference library

Karen B. Stern

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
6,303 words
Illustration(s):
1

...room with a mosaic floor, brickwork, and spaces for sarcophagi; the relationship between the catacomb and the aboveground room remains unclear. The catacombs incorporate several styles of architecture from different phases of their use. Cubicula, arcosolia, and floor tombs appear in the galleries. On the western side of the complex some floor tombs ( kokhim ) were cut perpendicularly to the main hall, but most loculi were carved parallel to the catacomb walls. Few grave goods were found, though a glass-paste Medusa head was discovered on the chest of one...

Medieval Europe

Medieval Europe   Reference library

Chris Scarre, O. H. Creighton, Ken Dark, Matthew H. Johnson, Ken Dark, Matthew H. Johnson, Ken Dark, Matthew H. Johnson, and Alan G. Vince

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
9,818 words

...style remained the predominant architectural mode for west European cathedrals during the thirteenth century, while Italy continued to build in Romanesque style. In Germany, however, a new form of church design developed, the hall church, with nave and aisles of equal height. Regionalism. The cathedral architecture of the following century lacked the uniformity of the thirteenth-century Gothic. Regionalism, however, does not mean a decline in the scale and design of churches. Antwerp and Milan cathedrals were started at this time, while the Perpendicular...

Islamic Civilization

Islamic Civilization   Reference library

John L. Meloy, Ian Straughn, and Donald Whitcomb

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
6,279 words

...been estimated from the earliest years of Islam (in the Negev) to evidence of Wahhabi fundamentalism in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. One of the most problematic elements of mosques is the orientation of the qibla wall. In theory, this wall should be oriented perpendicular to the axis leading toward Mecca; worshipers lined in rows with this wall should all be facing the correct direction of prayer. Determination of this direction has not been an easy matter and a number of mosques show radical changes in orientation as corrections have been...

Mesoamerica

Mesoamerica   Reference library

Charlotte Beck, Thomas W. Killion, Barbara Voorhies, Jon Lohse, D. C. Grove, Arlen F. Chase, Deborah L. Nichols, Frances F. Berdan, Thomas H. Charlton, Janine Gasco, and William R. Fowler

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
15,106 words

...Its areal extent is estimated to have covered some 21 square miles (55 sq km) and to have held a population of over 147,000 people at its height. Unlike most other Mesoamerican sites of the Classic Period, Teotihuacán is laid out in a broad gridlike pattern with two major perpendicular and linear roadways bisecting each other in the center of this city. Public architecture lines the full distance of the road running north–south; two of the largest pyramids in Mesoamerica, Teotihuacán’s Pyramids of the Sun and Moon, are situated on this roadway. The site also...

Beersheba

Beersheba   Reference library

Gunnar Lehmann

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,352 words

...chambers and repeatedly reconstructed. The general course of the streets did not change essentially through all four strata and are dominated by an inner and an outer peripheral alley parallel to the fortification wall and along the elevation lines. Radial streets running perpendicular to the peripheral alleys connected the inner part of the settlement with the outer one. There may have been free access to the city wall, considered by A. Faust a basic element of city planning in Judah and Israel during the Iron Age. There are indications of thorough planning...

Sepphoris

Sepphoris   Reference library

Carol Meyers and Eric M. Meyers

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
8,047 words
Illustration(s):
2

...The settlement on the summit spread to the adjacent plateau on the east at some point in the Early Roman period, in the late first or early second century c.e. Two broad streets—an east–west decumanus and a north–south cardo —and several smaller streets parallel and perpendicular to the main thoroughfares created a spacious orthogonal grid with blocks, or insulae , of buildings. The cardo (44.9 ft [13.7 m] wide) is paved with hard white limestone blocks set in diagonal rows. The original pavers, probably dating to the first half of the second...

Maya Civilization

Maya Civilization   Reference library

Patricia A. McAnany, Satoru Murata, David Humiston Kelley, Michael D. Coe, Gerardo Aldana, T. Patrick Culbert, Simon Martin, Payson D. Sheets, T. Patrick Culbert, Astrid Runggaldier, George Michaels, Patricia A. McAnany, and Jason Yaeger

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
13,801 words

...through the ring—no easy feat—translated into an instant win. Although the rules of the “game” are not completely clear and may have varied from place to place, players apparently faced off on either side of a line that ran parallel to the long axis of the court rather than perpendicular to it. Ancient ball players could use only their head, shoulders, and hips. The earliest ball courts in the Maya lowlands—which occur in Belize at Cerros and Colha—were constructed after 400 BC. By AD 250, the ball game occupied a central place in elite society. Often a political...

View: