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Grid Plan

Grid Plan   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
390 words

...way for excavators to make easy reference to a specific location on an archaeological site is by using a grid. The meaning of any archaeological information, such as an excavated object or architectural remain, is derived largely from its context, and a grid helps to identify that location and context. To form a grid, an arbitrary system of intersecting perpendicular lines is imposed on a site. The lines are usually established according to magnetic directions, running north–south and east–west. A mid-point for the grid is often set at the center of the...

Burial Techniques

Burial Techniques   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
740 words

...proliferated during the Roman period ( 37 bce –323 ce ): the arcosolium, a broad, archshaped shelf carved along the wall of a cave, used for primary burial (e.g. the Tomb of the Kings in Jerusalem, and the tombs at Khirbet Shema῾), and the koḥ , a deep, narrow slot carved perpendicular to the cave wall for primary or secondary burial (e.g., the “Caiaphas” tomb in Jerusalem and the “Goliath” tomb in Jericho). In koḥîm caves in the Roman period, ossuaries or other repositories—pits, niches, and even separate chambers and charnel rooms—were frequently used...

῾Ein-Zippori, Tel

῾Ein-Zippori, Tel   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
786 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in Iron II. Stratum II (tenth century bce ) contained a large, well-constructed, multiroomed building in field I that has been partially excavated ( see figure 1 ). The complex (at least 11 × 15 m) is oriented northeast-southwest, with two primary interior dividing walls perpendicular to each other. One interior wall carries a stone bench along its northern face. Both walls have well-hewn stones as door jambs. The complex has two building phases. The destruction debris found within the complex included a great deal of burned mud brick. In field II a series...

῾Izbet Ṣarṭah

῾Izbet Ṣarṭah   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,210 words
Illustration(s):
1

...ASOR Archives) At the center of the settlement a large, four-room house (16 × 12 m) was preserved up to three courses of stone with outer walls as much as 1.4 m thick. Three long, connecting rooms were separated by two rows of stone pillars. An enclosed room was situated perpendicular to them along the south wall. The floors of the side rooms were made out of stone slabs; the rest were of bedrock or beaten earth. The only entrance was at the northern end of the long western wall, and a small room was attached to the house at its north-west corner ( see ...

Ras Ibn Hani

Ras Ibn Hani   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,533 words

...four steps. The palace had been nearly deserted before it was destroyed by heavy fire, early in the twelfth century bce apparently by “Sea Peoples” whose precise nature is a debated question. On a part of the ruins that was leveled, small dwellings were built bordered by perpendicular streets. The painted pottery recovered, of types common on Cyprus and in Palestine in the twelfth century, are considered to be the last development of Mycenaean pottery, suggesting that this settlement was founded by the very sackers of the Ugaritic city. Destructions and...

Building Materials and Techniques

Building Materials and Techniques   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
17,911 words
Illustration(s):
10

...as the first architectural structures (e.g., in the Natufian and Pre-Pottery Neolithic A ( PPNA ) periods in the ancient Near East (Bar-Yosef, 1992 ). Hollow gaps on the inner face of round stone houses at the PPNB site of Beidha in modern Jordan indicate the use there of wooden posts. [See Beidha .] Wood has also been utilized in more complex structures. In orthogonal (right-angled) units, beams were used for roofing. The main beams were placed at intervals across the room and thinner branches were densely laid over and perpendicular to the beams. The...

Cities

Cities   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
19,325 words
Illustration(s):
5

...K. A. C. A Bibliography of the Architecture, Arts, and Crafts of Islam to 1st January 1960 . Cairo, 1961. Classic and indispensable reference work for studies of architecture and individual monuments, although neither urban nor social studies are included. Supplements appeared in 1973 and 1984. Creswell, K. A. C. A Short Account of Early Muslim Architecture . Revised and supplemented by James W. Allan . Aldershot, 1989. Creswell's 1958 edition of this work was an abbreviated version of his monumental Early Muslim Architecture , 2 vols. (Oxford, 1932–1940)....

Sepphoris

Sepphoris   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
6,809 words
Illustration(s):
7

...sides of the summit. Eastern insulae. As early as the second century ce , the original settlement on the summit had spread to the east, on the adjacent plateau. Two broad streets—an east–west decumanus and a north–south cardo —and several smaller streets parallel and perpendicular to these main thoroughfares created spacious orthogonal grid with blocks, or insulae, of buildings. The cardo (13.7 m wide) is paved with hard white limestone blocks set in diagonal rows. The original Roman pavers, with deep wheel ruts testifying to centuries of wagon...

Furniture and Furnishings

Furniture and Furnishings   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
10,489 words
Illustration(s):
7

... Malku's wife (Malku was an important Palmyrene) sits on a cathedra . From the end of the second century ce , a Palmyran relief shows the goddess Leto seated on a similar basket chair. The cathedra was also used as a litter for the wealthy. Two types of stools, one with perpendicular legs and a second with folding legs, are known from the classical Greek world and continued to be used commonly in the Roman period. One of the few existing examples of a Roman-period stool is represented by a wooden leg excavated at Rifeh, Egypt. A cross-legged stool with a...

Gothic

Gothic   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
87 words

...[De] Architectural style characterized by pointed arches and the vault, succeeding the Norman or Romanesque style at the end of the 12th century ad . Subdivided into three periods: early (13th century ad ), characterized by the lancet window without tracery; the decorated Gothic ( c .1290–1350 ), in which windows have first geometrical, then flowing, tracery; and the perpendicular ( c .1350–1530 ), where tracery has strong vertical lines. The Gothic style was followed by the Tudor style, but was later revived as neo‐Gothic or Gothic during the 19th...

perpendicular style

perpendicular style   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
71 words

... style [De] A style of architecture found in Britain in the late 14th century ad through to the 16th century ad in which there is a strong emphasis on the vertical elements of construction and decoration. Pointed arches common in earlier centuries are flattened and arches and windows become framed by rectangular outlines. Towers of great height are added to ecclesiastical buildings and ceilings and roofs are often richly...

quatrefoil

quatrefoil  

An ornamental design of four lobes or leaves as used in architectural tracery, resembling a flower or clover leaf.
flint

flint  

Variety of chert, which occurs commonly as nodules and bands in chalk. It is deposited in the porous, permeable structures of sponge, diatom, and echinoid skeletons and also in burrows.
glass

glass  

[Ma]An artificial material produced by fusing silica sand with an alkali such as potash or sodium. It was probably developed from faience in the Near East during the 3rd millennium bc, but was not ...
Medieval Europe

Medieval Europe   Reference library

Chris Scarre, O. H. Creighton, Ken Dark, Matthew H. Johnson, Ken Dark, Matthew H. Johnson, Ken Dark, Matthew H. Johnson, and Alan G. Vince

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
9,818 words

...church tradition continued, while in England, the Perpendicular chapel of King’s College, Cambridge, and central tower of Canterbury Cathedral show the continuation of this style. On the brink of the Renaissance and the Reformation, medieval church builders remained active, but their styles were diverse. The architecture of smaller churches, whether parish church or private chapel, was closely related to that of the great cathedral and abbey churches. Smaller churches showed a similar sequence of architectural trends at different dates and in modified form,...

Death and Burial in the Jewish Diaspora

Death and Burial in the Jewish Diaspora   Reference library

Karen B. Stern

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
6,303 words
Illustration(s):
1

...with a mosaic floor, brickwork, and spaces for sarcophagi; the relationship between the catacomb and the aboveground room remains unclear. The catacombs incorporate several styles of architecture from different phases of their use. Cubicula, arcosolia, and floor tombs appear in the galleries. On the western side of the complex some floor tombs ( kokhim ) were cut perpendicularly to the main hall, but most loculi were carved parallel to the catacomb walls. Few grave goods were found, though a glass-paste Medusa head was discovered on the chest of one skeleton...

Maya Civilization

Maya Civilization   Reference library

Patricia A. McAnany, Satoru Murata, David Humiston Kelley, Michael D. Coe, Gerardo Aldana, T. Patrick Culbert, Simon Martin, Payson D. Sheets, T. Patrick Culbert, Astrid Runggaldier, George Michaels, Patricia A. McAnany, and Jason Yaeger

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
13,801 words

...Itzá. Utilizing all the traditional canons of Maya architecture, these northern capitals surpassed the architectural splendor of the older cities of the south with higher and wider corbel arches, complex and repetitive stone-mosaic friezes, multistoried palaces, and—at Chichén Itzá—the largest ball court ever constructed in the Maya region. Most of these northern cities thrived for less than three hundred years and only Chichén Itzá survived into the thirteenth century. Because of its architectural similarity with the small highland capital of Tula,...

Islamic Civilization

Islamic Civilization   Reference library

John L. Meloy, Ian Straughn, and Donald Whitcomb

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
6,279 words

...been estimated from the earliest years of Islam (in the Negev) to evidence of Wahhabi fundamentalism in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. One of the most problematic elements of mosques is the orientation of the qibla wall. In theory, this wall should be oriented perpendicular to the axis leading toward Mecca; worshipers lined in rows with this wall should all be facing the correct direction of prayer. Determination of this direction has not been an easy matter and a number of mosques show radical changes in orientation as corrections have been...

Beth-Shean, Roman and Byzantine Period

Beth-Shean, Roman and Byzantine Period   Reference library

Gabriel Mazor

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
6,955 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of the Jezreel Valley en route from Caesarea to Nysa-Scythopolis. The urban planning of Nysa-Scythopolis during the second to early third centuries c.e. might be best termed “from functional to monumental.” Its architecture was characteristic of the new imperial architecture with its Baroque decor, which represents a further developed architectural koine (common [vocabulary]) prevalent all over the Roman provinces around the Mediterranean since the reign of Augustus. The agora, the focal point of the civic center, was renovated, surrounded by colonnades,...

Beersheba

Beersheba   Reference library

Gunnar Lehmann

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,352 words

...chambers and repeatedly reconstructed. The general course of the streets did not change essentially through all four strata and are dominated by an inner and an outer peripheral alley parallel to the fortification wall and along the elevation lines. Radial streets running perpendicular to the peripheral alleys connected the inner part of the settlement with the outer one. There may have been free access to the city wall, considered by A. Faust a basic element of city planning in Judah and Israel during the Iron Age. There are indications of thorough planning...

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