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Pennsylvania

The history of Pennsylvania's contact with Latin America begins in Philadelphia, the port city that had strong commercial ties with Cuba dating back at least to the late eighteenth ...

Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
233 words

... pennsylvania Statehood: December 12, 1787 Nickname: The Keystone State State bird: Ruffed grouse State flower: Mountain laurel State tree: Hemlock State motto: Virtue, liberty and independence State in e USA; one of the Middle Atlantic states; the capital is Harrisburg . The chief cities are Philadelphia , Pittsburgh , Scranton, Bethlehem, Wilkes-Barre and Erie. Swedish and Dutch settlements were made along the Delaware River in the mid-17th century. By 1664 , the area was controlled by the English, and in 1681 William Penn received a...

Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,100 words

...rights laws, blacks in Pennsylvania continue in the twenty-first century to vote primarily for Democrats. Pennsylvania, home of eminent black communities, has produced many leaders. Herbert Arlene of Philadelphia served in the Pennsylvania house of representatives from 1959 to 1966 and then was the first black member of the Pennsylvania state senate, serving there from 1967 to 1980 . Similarly, Freeman Hankins served as a member of the Pennsylvania house of representatives from 1961 to 1966 and then as a member of the Pennsylvania state senate. Benjamin...

Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania (USA)   Quick reference

Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...Pennsylvania , USA A state officially called the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. The British seized control of the territory from the Dutch in 1664 and in 1681 King Charles II granted it to William Penn ( 1644–1718 ), a Quaker leader. He established a Quaker colony the following year. The region was not named after him but after his dead father, Admiral Sir William Penn ( 1621–70 ), at the insistence of the king who had owed the admiral £16,000. The admiral had been irked by his son’s admiration for the Quakers and his squabbles with the...

Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History, 1619–1895: From the Colonial Period to the Age of Frederick Douglass

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,121 words
Illustration(s):
1

... Pennsylvania: A History of the Commonwealth . University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2002. Nash, Gary B. Forging Freedom: The Formation of Philadelphia's Black Community, 1720–1840 . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1988. Nash, Gary B. , and Jean R. Soderlund . Freedom by Degrees: Emancipation in Pennsylvania and Its Aftermath . New York: Oxford University Press, 1991. Trotter, Joe William , Jr., and Eric Ledell Smith , eds. African Americans in Pennsylvania: Shifting Historical Perspectives . University Park: Pennsylvania State...

Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania   Quick reference

Neil Morris

Dictionary Plus Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
185 words

...Pennsylvania A state in north-east USA, one of the Middle Atlantic states. Originally inhabited by many Native American tribes including the Delaware, the region was reached by Swedish and Dutch settlers in the 1640s. Having seized it in 1661 , the English gave the territory to the Quaker leader William Penn is 1681 . Pennsylvania became one of the original thirteen states of the Union in 1787 . In 1859 the world’s first successful oil well was drilled at Titusville, and the state became a leading producer of coal, iron, and steel. Much of the state is...

Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,230 words

... . The history of Pennsylvania's contact with Latin America begins in Philadelphia, the port city that had strong commercial ties with Cuba dating back at least to the late eighteenth century. The origins of these links are unclear, but smuggling between the ports of Philadelphia and Havana was big business for many years. It intensified during the American Revolution, and trade was legalized in 1779 . The trade relationship remained strong until Cuba's “sugar revolution” made the island the world's richest colony in the first half of the nineteenth...

Pennsylvania Farmer

Pennsylvania Farmer   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Literature (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Literature
Length:
6 words

... Farmer , pseudonym of John Dickinson...

Pennsylvania Journal

Pennsylvania Journal   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Literature (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Literature
Length:
8 words

... Journal , see Bradford, William ( 1722–91...

Pennsylvania Chronicle

Pennsylvania Chronicle   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Literature (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Literature
Length:
39 words

... Chronicle ( 1767–73 ), Philadelphia newspaper founded to oppose the proprietary party in the colony. It attempted to be impartial, however, and is remembered for publishing John Dickinson 's Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania ( 1767–68...

Pennsylvania truss

Pennsylvania truss   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Construction, Surveying and Civil Engineering (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

... truss ( Petit truss ) A variation of the Parker truss , developed by the Pennsylvanian Railroad in the 1870s, that contains sub-struts/ties to resist/transmit stresses; see also Baltimore truss...

Pennsylvania Dutch

Pennsylvania Dutch   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...book on the subject: ‘Pennsylvania-German Foods and Foodways’. This scholarly work, later complemented by the same author’s book on Pennsylvania Dutch Country Cooking ( 1993 ), was based on a rare early cookbook in German, Die geschickte Hausfrau ( 1848 ), for use by the German-speakers of Pennsylvania, but ranges much more widely, setting the whole array of Pennsylvania Dutch kitchen equipment, ingredients, and recipes in their historical and cultural contexts. Weaver observes that: The central characteristic of classical Pennsylvania-German cookery was the...

Pennsylvania Dutch

Pennsylvania Dutch   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... Dutch (German Deutscher , ‘German’) The name given to the German settlers in Pennsylvania who first began to arrive in 1683 and whose immigration was actively promoted by William Penn ( 1644–1718 ). A steady influx continued through much of the 18th century, and in some parts a German patois is still spoken. The influence of their culture and industry has been notable. See also mennonites ; tunkers...

Pennsylvania Ballet

Pennsylvania Ballet   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Dance (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
88 words

...Pennsylvania Ballet Ballet company based in Philadelphia which was founded in 1963 by Barbara Weisberger . The early repertoire included many ballets by Balanchine , along with works by Butler , Dollar , Smuin , Moncion , Harkarvy , and van Manen . Subsequent directors have included Benjamin Harkarvy , Robert Weiss ( 1982–90 ), Christopher d'Amboise ( 1990–94 ), and Roy Kaiser . The company's current repertory includes stagings of the 19th-century classics as well as commissioned works by, among others, David Parsons , Trey McIntyre , ...

Pennsylvania Dutch

Pennsylvania Dutch   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Literature (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Literature
Length:
143 words

... Dutch , popular misnomer for the German-American people of Pennsylvania, or for their language, which was originally a High German idiom, but in modern times is a corrupt German and English dialect. The region was widely colonized by German immigrant groups, beginning in 1683 with the settlement of the Mennonites and others, who migrated for religious, political, and economic reasons, the greatest numbers coming during the 18th and 19th centuries. Owing to their persistent segregation in separate settlements, each with its own school and church,...

Pennsylvania Magazine

Pennsylvania Magazine   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Literature (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Literature
Length:
64 words

... Magazine ( Jan. 1775–July 1776 ), published monthly by Robert Aitken . Thomas Paine was nominally the editor ( Feb. 1775 – May 1776 ) and contributed many articles. The magazine printed war reports, letters from Washington and other leaders, the text of the Declaration of Independence, scientific contributions by Benjamin Rush and others, and literary contributions by Francis Hopkinson , John Witherspoon , and William Smith...

Pennsylvania Ballet

Pennsylvania Ballet   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
815 words

... New Yorker (15 November 1976). Deitch, Mark . New York's Fourth Major Troupe Is a Pennsylvania Import . New York Times (23 October 1977). Jowitt, Deborah . Where the Grandeur Lies: The Pennsylvania Ballet . Village Voice (3 December 1974). Maynard, Olga . Barbara Weisberger and the Pennsylvania Ballet . Dance Magazine (March 1975): 45–60. Tobias, Tobi . Philadelphia Story: Pennsylvania Ballet . Soho News (21 May 1980). Videotape Merrill Brockway, “The Pennsylvania Ballet,” Dance in America (WNET-TV, New York, 1976). Sarah...

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania   Reference library

Billy G. Smith

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Pennsylvania Philadelphia was the home for much that was central to the American Enlightenment, and Benjamin Franklin, the city’s most famous citizen, was its emblem. From founding the Junto (commonly called the Leather Apron Club) at the age of twenty-one to serving as president of the Pennsylvania Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery in the final years of his long life, Franklin dedicated himself, through a “rational” approach reflecting Enlightenment ideals, to improving the city of Philadelphia in particular and the larger country in...

Pennsylvania long rifle

Pennsylvania long rifle   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

... long rifle a longrifle developed in Pennsylvania by German craftsmen in the early 18th century. A typical rifle was .50 caliber, with a 42 to 46 inch...

Pennsylvania, University of

Pennsylvania, University of   Reference library

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

..., University of . Privately endowed university founded in Philadelphia in 1740 and offering music courses from 1875 ; see also Libraries and collections...

Pennsylvania Dutch Food

Pennsylvania Dutch Food   Reference library

Mark H. Zanger

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Bourse, 1935. Reprinted as Pennsylvania Dutch Cook Book. New York: Dover, 1971. Good, Phyllis Pellman , and Stoltzfus, Louise . The Best of Mennonite Fellowship Meals: More Than 900 Recipes to Share with Friends at Home or at Church. Intercourse, Pa.: Good Books, 1991. Weaver, William Woys . Pennsylvania Dutch Country Cooking. New York: Abbeville, 1993. Weaver, William Woys . Sauerkraut Yankees: Pennsylvania German Foods and Foodways. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1983. A translation of the 1851 Pennsylvania Dutch cookbook Die...

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