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Pedanius Dioscorides

(c. 40–c.90 ad) Greek physician Little is known of the life of Dioscorides except that he was born in Anazarbus (now in Turkey) and became a surgeon to Emperor Nero's armies, ...

Dioscorides, Pedanius

Dioscorides, Pedanius   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Scientists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology
Length:
153 words

..., Pedanius ( c. 40– c. 90 ad ) Greek physician Little is known of the life of Dioscorides except that he was born in Anazarbus (now in Turkey) and became a surgeon to Emperor Nero's armies, having most probably learned his skills at Alexandria and Tarsus. Many writings are attributed to him but the only book for which his authorship is undisputed is De materia medica (On Medicine). This pharmacopeia remained the standard medical text until the 17th century, undergoing many revisions and additions and greatly influencing both Western and Islamic...

Dioscorides, Pedanius

Dioscorides, Pedanius (c. ad 40–c. ad 90)   Reference library

The New Oxford Dictionary for Scientific Writers and Editors (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

..., Pedanius ( c. ad 40– c. ad 90 ) Greek physician...

Pedanius Dioscorides

Pedanius Dioscorides  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(c. 40–c.90 ad) Greek physicianLittle is known of the life of Dioscorides except that he was born in Anazarbus (now in Turkey) and became a surgeon to Emperor Nero's armies, having most probably ...
Dioscorides

Dioscorides   Quick reference

John M. Riddle

Who's Who in the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
330 words

... ( Pedanius Dioscorides ) (1st cent. ad ), of Cilician Anazarbus, wrote an extensive, five-book work on the drugs employed in medicine. Dioscorides studied under Areius of Tarsus and travelled extensively collecting information about the medicinal uses of herbs, minerals, and animal products. His travels took him to the Greek mainland, Crete, Egypt, and Petra, but he mentions plants from much further afield. In the Preface he describes his travels as leading to a ‘soldier-like life’, a statement that led later writers to conclude, probably falsely,...

Dioscorides

Dioscorides (2) (1st cent. ad)   Reference library

John M. Riddle

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
594 words

... (2) ( Pedanius Dioscorides ) ( 1st cent. ad ) , of Cilician Anazarbus, wrote an extensive, five-book work on the drugs employed in medicine. Dioscorides studied under Areius of Tarsus and travelled extensively collecting information about the medicinal uses of herbs, minerals, and animal products. His travels took him to the Greek mainland, Crete, Egypt, and Petra, but he mentions plants from much further afield. In the Preface he describes his travels as leading to a ‘soldier-like life’, a statement that led later writers to conclude, probably...

Dardani

Dardani   Reference library

John Joseph Wilkes

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
243 words

...wild that they dig caves beneath their dunghills and live there; but still they have a taste for music and are always playing musical instruments, both flutes and strings’ (Strabo 7. 5. 7); they are also known to have had some knowledge of medicinal plants, according to Pedanius Dioscorides (2) . They were included in the Roman province Moesia and, after the late 1st cent. ad , in Upper Moesia. Under the Flavians a colonia was settled in their territory at Scupi (mod. Skopje). They were still notorious as bandits in the following century (SHA Marc. 21....

botany

botany   Reference library

John Scarborough

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,728 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Orchideae; there is detailed expertise on trees and woods, as well as fungi, lichens, and algae. See agricultural writers ; contraception ; olive ; timber ; wine . John Scarborough botany The castor oil plant as illustrated in a 6th-cent. ad copy of the herbal of Pedanius Dioscorides (1st cent. ad ). His work, ‘Materials of Medicine’, lists around 700 plants and is an important source of knowledge about earlier Greek botany. Austrian National Library ...

mineralogy

mineralogy   Reference library

J. T. Valiance

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
576 words

...and extraordinary properties of certain stones, especially gems , is a striking feature of book 37, which also contains (37. 42) the first surviving account of the true origin of amber. This tradition is preserved and developed in the later, often mystical, Lapidaries. Pedanius Dioscorides (1st cent. ad ) treats minerals with medicinal importance in the fifth book of his Materia medica , as does Galen of Pergamum (2nd cent. ad ) in his great pharmacological treatises. J. T. Valiance...

chewing gum

chewing gum   Reference library

Harley Spiller

The Oxford Companion to Sugar and Sweets

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
1,714 words

...is the onomatopoetic name of the noise made by chewers and egestors of the fruit of the Thespesia garckeana tree, a sweet, glutinous fruit known to some by the inaccurate nickname “African chewing gum.” Medical Uses The Greek physician, pharmacologist, and botanist Pedanius Dioscorides first used powdered mastiche as dental and intestinal medicine on the Isle of Chios around 50 c.e. In 1882 Ohio physician Edward Beeman, at the suggestion of his bookkeeper Nellie Horton, added to chewing gum the pepsin powder he had compounded as an aid to...

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