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Paschal Controversies

Subject: Religion

Disputes on how to settle the date of Easter. (1) Whether Easter should be observed on a fixed day of the lunar month (14 Nisan) or on the following Sunday. See Quartodecimanism. (2) ...

Paschal Controversies

Paschal Controversies   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
257 words

... Controversies . Disputes on how to settle the date of Easter . 1 Whether Easter should be observed on a fixed day of the lunar month (14 Nisan ) or on the following Sunday. See Quartodecimanism . 2 Divergences in the different methods of determining the ‘Paschal Moon’ used by the Antiochenes (who accepted the Jewish reckoning) and the Alexandrians , who used an independent reckoning; the first Council of Nicaea ( 325 ) decided in favour of the latter. 3 Differences between the Roman and Alexandrian methods of computation through the use of...

Paschal Controversies

Paschal Controversies   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
750 words

...Paschal Controversies . Among the many controversies in the early Church over the complex question as to how to settle the date of Easter (the Christian ‘Passover’ or ‘Pasch’) were: (1) Whether Easter should be observed, after the Jewish manner, on a fixed day of the lunar month (14 Nisan ) or always on (the following) Sunday. The former practice was the ancient tradition in Asia Minor. On this dispute, see quartodecimanism . (2) The divergences arising from the Antiochene and Alexandrian methods of determining the ‘Paschal Moon’, the Antiochenes...

Paschal Controversies

Paschal Controversies  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Disputes on how to settle the date of Easter. (1) Whether Easter should be observed on a fixed day of the lunar month (14 Nisan) or on the following Sunday. See Quartodecimanism. (2) Divergences in ...
paschal controversy

paschal controversy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Irish History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
361 words

... controversy , an argument over the calculation of the date of Easter that constitutes a prominent theme in the ecclesiastical affairs of the 7th century. Easter was defined as the Sunday following the full moon of Pesach, the Jewish Passover, but because the Jewish calendar was based on lunar months, its date in relation to the western solar calendar is variable. Different methods of calculation for correlating the two calendars were tried in the 5th and 6th centuries. The Celtic churches of western Britain and Ireland adhered to an 84‐year cycle when...

Paschal II

Paschal II  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(d. 1118), Pope from 1099. He renewed the Papal decrees against lay investiture in 1102; though he did not settle the Investiture Controversy with the Empire, compromises had been reached with ...
Paschasinus

Paschasinus  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(c.440),Bp. of Lilybaeum (now Marsala) in Sicily. Pope Leo the Great assisted him when his diocese was devastated by the Vandals. When asked by Leo his opinion in the ...
First Council of Nicaea

First Council of Nicaea  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(325). The first Oecumenical Council, summoned by the Emp. Constantine, mainly to deal with the Arian controversy. After an Arian creed submitted by Eusebius of Nicomedia had been rejected, Eusebius ...
Quartodecimanism

Quartodecimanism  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
The custom of observing Easter on the 14th day of Nisan (the day of the Jewish Passover), whatever the day of the week. The tradition was rooted in Asia Minor. When St Polycarp, Bp. of Smyrna, ...
Novatianism

Novatianism  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
A rigorist schism in the W. Church. Novatian was a Roman presbyter and author of a treatise on the doctrine of the Trinity. Apparently because he was disappointed by the election of Cornelius as Pope ...
Callistus II

Callistus II  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(d. 1124), Pope from 1119. He was a strong opponent of lay investiture; during his pontificate the Investiture Controversy was settled by the Concordat of Worms (1122). At the Lateran Council of 1123 ...
St Egbert

St Egbert  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(d. 729), Northumbrian hermit. A monk of Lindisfarne, he went to Ireland and was influential in organizing the evangelization of Germany; he arranged the mission of St Willibrord and others. From ...
Gregorian calendar

Gregorian calendar  

The Julian calendar as adjusted by Pope Gregory XIII in 1582 to make it cohere better with the solar year. It was not accepted in most Orthodox Churches until 1924.[...]
concordat

concordat  

Formal agreement between the pope and a king or emperor that resolved matters between the two leaders concerning affairs in the secular ruler’s territory. The earliest and best-known agreement was ...
Pelagianism

Pelagianism  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
Theologically, Pelagianism is the heresy that people can take the initial steps towards salvation by their own efforts, apart from Divine grace. Historically, it was an ascetic movement composed of ...
Synod of Whitby

Synod of Whitby  

664.The Northumbrian church, which began with Paulinus and Roman Christianity, was revived by Aidan, who introduced Celtic customs from Iona. The most controversial difference, the dating of Easter, ...
Bede

Bede  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
(673–735,historian and scholar, when young placed in the charge of Benedict Biscop, the abbot of Wearmouth. From there he went in 682 to Jarrow, where he spent most of his life. He was a diligent ...
Paschal II

Paschal II (d. 1118)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
123 words

... II ( d. 1118 ), Pope from 1099 . He renewed the Papal decrees against lay investiture in 1102 ; though he did not settle the Investiture Controversy with the Empire, compromises had been reached with England and France by 1107 . He supported the rebellion of the future Emp. Henry V against Henry IV , but when Henry V practised investiture Paschal opposed him and in 1116 renounced the concessions extorted from him when Henry had taken him prisoner in 1111 . He maintained the links between the Papacy and Cluny and at various councils...

Easter

Easter   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
134 words

...In the E. Church, in addition to the services on Saturday, Mattins of Easter Sunday begins at Midnight on Saturday–Sunday, and is followed by the Liturgy of Easter Day. See Paschal Vigil Service . The date of Easter is determined by the Paschal Full Moon, its extreme limits being 21 March and 25 April. For disputes on the computation of Easter, see Paschal Controversies...

Whitby, Synod of

Whitby, Synod of (664)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
88 words

...Synod of (664) , a council held by King Oswiu of Northumbria to establish unity of practice in the date of observing Easter ( see Paschal Controversies ) and the style of tonsure within his territory. Oswiu decided to follow the tradition of St Peter . Northumbria adopted the Roman practice and those clergy who would not change withdrew to Iona and later to Ireland. Despite the view of past historians, there is little reason to think that the Synod had much influence outside...

Paschal II

Paschal II (1118)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
582 words

...Paschal II (d. 1118 ) , Pope from 1099 . Ranierus, who was prob. born at Bleda in the Romagna, entered an unknown monastery as a boy. He was made cardinal priest of San Clemente by Gregory VII , served as legate in France and Spain under Urban II , and became Abbot of St Paul 's outside the Walls in Rome. As Pope he renewed the Papal decrees against lay investiture in 1102 , but died leaving the Investiture Controversy still unsettled. By 1107 compromises had been reached with the kings of England and France, but with the Empire no settlement...

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