You are looking at 1-20 of 96 entries  for:

  • All: Part 20 claim x
clear all

View:

Overview

Part 20 claim

Subject: Law

A claim other than a claim by the claimant against the defendant. It includes (1) a counterclaim by the defendant against the claimant; (2) a counterclaim by the defendant against a third ...

community studies

community studies  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The ambiguities of the term community make any wholly coherent sociological definition of communities, and hence the scope and limits for their empirical study, impossible to achieve. In practice, ...
sociology of industry

sociology of industry  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A loosely defined, but well-established sub-specialism within sociology, which can trace its origins back to the discipline's founders. Its expansion in the 20th century was encouraged by the hope of ...
regulation theory

regulation theory   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
225 words

...which refers to the national and international, institutional, and ideological framework which facilitates the reproduction of particular regimes of accumulation and modes of growth. The best-known claim made by the regulationists is that the use of these concepts enables one to distinguish two successive modes of regulation in the history of 20th-century capitalism— fordism and post-fordism. Representative works in English include Michel Aglietta , A Theory of Capitalist Regulation: The U.S. Experience (1976, trans. 1979) ; Mike Davis , ...

take-off

take-off   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
203 words

...American economic historian Walt W. Rostow ’s Stages of Economic Growth (1953). Rostow postulated five such stages: traditional society; preconditions for take-off; take-off to maturity; drive to maturity; and maturity. In this way he claimed to identify a recognizable stage in a country’s history, lasting perhaps 20–30 years, during which the conditions required for sustained and fairly rapid economic growth are consolidated, and beyond which growth is more or less assured. The theory assumes that levels of capital investment are crucial to initiating...

community studies

community studies   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
555 words

...those community studies that claimed to provide case-studies of wider social processes. Various attempts have been made to rethink the content and purpose of community studies by abandoning the normative overtones that the concept of community has so frequently carried. The philosopher Raymond Plant has also argued that the concept is ‘essentially contested’ and therefore necessarily comprises both a descriptive and an evaluative dimension. In an article entitled ‘The Myth of Community Studies’ ( British Journal of Sociology , 20, 1969). Margaret Stacey ...

labelling

labelling   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,296 words

...makes the claim that labels themselves are the root cause of deviant behaviour. Nor is there anything inevitable about labelling or amplification. The transition from primary to secondary deviance is a complicated process full of contingencies. Labels may be provisional, negotiable, or rejected. Similarly, it is unfair to complain that labelling theorists ignored large areas of deviant behaviour, since they clearly did not purport to offer a universal explanation for every known form of crime. Rather, proponents made the considerably more modest claim that...

Marxism

Marxism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
878 words

...The body of theory and diverse political practices and policies associated with (or justified by reference to) the writings of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels . For a substantial part of the 20th century, and until the closing years of the millennium, Marxism was the alleged organizing principle of societies which contained more than one-third of the earth's population. Its influence on culture, history, sociology, politics, economics, and philosophy is explained and documented in David McLellan (ed.), Marx: The First Hundred Years (1983). However,...

postmodernism

postmodernism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,242 words

...entails ‘the final erosion of boundaries between the knowledges and practices of science and those of other domains’, then it follows (as they conclude) that the truth claims of social science ‘enjoy no guaranteed salience or guaranteed cognitive privilege’, that ‘sociology is quite free to tell what stories it likes about change or any other matter’, and that ‘these stories are part of a more general economy of discourse in which they must fight to find an audience and establish a salience in competition with other stories, and in the absence of...

Althusser, Louis

Althusser, Louis (1918–90)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,000 words

...of the whole (‘structural causality’). The view of history as a linear sequence of modes of production through which humankind passes en route to communist self-realization had become identified with Marxist orthodoxy. Althusser rejected this as a historicist ideology, and claimed to uncover an anti-historicist view of history as a ‘process without a subject’ in Marx's later writings. For Althusser, the major historical transitions are always contingent, always exceptional outcomes of the overdetermination or ‘condensation’ of a multiplicity of...

industry, sociology of

industry, sociology of   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
984 words

...of social stratification , by reference to workplace factors. These factors included the more personal dealings white-collar workers have with management, their greater personal autonomy, and the better remuneration and promotion prospects they were said to enjoy. It was also claimed that, as the many offices and white-collar workplaces became larger, more impersonal, and more automated, so the workers were becoming more like factory workers both in their objective work situation and in their subjective response to it. Recent research has revealed a more...

Weber, Max

Weber, Max (1864–1920)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,062 words

...Was he, as some have claimed, a precursor of fascism; or, as seems much more plausible, a sophisticated liberal? The problem is that, as with much of his other work, his political writings do not fit the rather simplistic categories into which social theorists now try to fit them. His publications are as voluminous as they are diverse, but his most important works (all available in English translation) are probably Economy and Society (1920) , The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (1904) , General Economic History (1919–20) , The Religion of...

codes, cultural

codes, cultural   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,232 words

...of the group. This approach became highly influential in later studies of media audiences. It was taken up by writers such as Michel de Certeau and John Fiske, who claimed that the codes of the powerful are rarely or never accepted by subordinate groups. These views resonated with the post-structuralist turn in cultural studies in the mid-1980s and after, which was inspired by claims by Jacques Derrida and others that linguistic systems are far more self-contradictory, ever-changing, and unstable than Saussure envisaged. An alternative, though in some...

sociology

sociology   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,229 words

...of social relationships. It is no surprise, then, that sociology is sometimes seen (at least by sociologists) as a queen of the social sciences, bringing together and extending the knowledge and insights of all the other (conceptually more restricted) adjacent disciplines. This claim is perhaps less true now than during the period when sociology was expanding rapidly, but despite inevitable specialization among its practitioners there is still a strong totalizing tendency in the discipline, as a perusal of the work of Anthony Giddens or Jeffrey Alexander ...

Alcatraz Island, Occupation of (1969)

Alcatraz Island, Occupation of (1969)   Reference library

Kent Blansett

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Island, Occupation of (1969) On 20 November 1969 , more than eighty American Indians from the organization Indians of All Tribes (IAT) claimed Alcatraz, an island in San Francisco Bay, as Indian land by right of discovery. The occupation lasted a total of nineteen months as thousands of indigenous people from all across the Americas made their collective stand for treaty and human rights on Alcatraz. Two of the most important leaders for the IAT were college students: Richard Oakes, an Akwesasne Mohawk from San Francisco State College, and LaNada...

Women’s Rights Movement, Antebellum Era

Women’s Rights Movement, Antebellum Era   Reference library

Linda C. Frank

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... 20 July 1848 . The Seneca Falls Convention was attended by more than three hundred women and men from central and western New York , and the majority of attendees had kinship ties to members of the newly created Free-Soil abolitionist political party and local members of the Quaker faith. The Seneca Falls Convention debated and finalized a list of grievances and resolutions that had been prepared by the organizers in advance of the convention. The document, the Declaration of Sentiments, was modeled on the Declaration of Independence and boldly claimed that...

Balkan States

Balkan States   Reference library

Đermana Šeta

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,420 words

...unequal status in society as part of the class issue. Women therefore gained equality before the law, the right to vote and work, and many other rights, although their implementation faced resistance stemming from traditionally defined gender roles. The feminist movement also started being more active around the 1970s, appearing in its most prominent form in Yugoslavia, which had more open borders compared to other countries in the Communist bloc. The feminist approach was attacked for being bourgeois and it was claimed that the socialist emancipation of...

Child Workers

Child Workers   Reference library

Brian Gratton and Jon R. Moen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...likely to work. In 1880 only 8 percent of those aged ten to thirteen had gainful employment, and that fell to 3 percent in 1920 ; meanwhile, among girls from ages fourteen to seventeen, rates stayed steady at just over 20 percent. Industrial work was therefore always rare among children less than fourteen years of age. Reformers also claimed that ethno-cultural deficiencies led certain groups to exploit their children. There was some justice in this assertion: many immigrants had come from agricultural societies in which child labor was common, and at first,...

Microfinance

Microfinance   Reference library

Clinton Bennett

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,184 words

...involved in traveling through rural areas. Some point out that not everyone can launch a small business; thus, as a panacea to eliminate all poverty, microfinance falls short. It rarely results in creating large numbers of actual jobs. Some opponents of the bank claim that it is part of a Christian conspiracy to undermine Islamic values and practices, including purdah . Critics say that it exploits women, because the type of work they do earns relatively little money. Some men tell women that, if they join the bank, they are “bad Muslims” (Yunus 1999,...

Antebellum Era

Antebellum Era   Reference library

Joshua D. Rothman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...of Independence. Only Louisiana sat west of the Mississippi River or occupied space beyond the boundaries of the United States that had been established by the Treaty of Paris at the end of the Revolutionary War. The Spanish claimed Florida and a large portion of the western half of the continent, England claimed sizable territory in the Pacific Northwest, and even though several of the groups had suffered major military setbacks during the War of 1812 , various groups of Native Americans inhabited land both east and west of the Mississippi . In...

Muhājirūn

Muhājirūn   Reference library

Anis Ahmad

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,313 words

...group, founded on self-claimed muhājir identity in Pakistan, namely muttaḥida muhājir movement ( muhājir alliance) evolved into muttaḥida qawmī movement (national alliance). In the North American and European context, those who at one time regarded themselves as muhājir , while proud of maintaining their cultural and religious identity, are going through a process of integration. Many of these Muslim women retain their practice of wearing head scarves, use of ʿabāyah (long shirt), or kaftans. Some cover part of their face as part of their religious...

View: