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Part 20 claim

Subject: Law

A claim other than a claim by the claimant against the defendant. It includes (1) a counterclaim by the defendant against the claimant; (2) a counterclaim by the defendant against a third ...

Hernandez v. Texas

Hernandez v. Texas   Reference library

Ian Haney-López

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
966 words

...The Court’s dilemma stemmed in part from the racial ideas of the time, including the belief that the “great races”—white, black, yellow, and red—each corresponded to a particular continent. Under this conception, the mixed origins of Latin Americans were a conundrum. In addition, the Court struggled with the nature of Mexican American identity because LULAC, like almost all other Latino/a civic groups in the period from 1930 to 1970 , argued that its constituents were white. LULAC’s campaign for civil rights rested on the claim not that discrimination was...

Nicaraguan Organizations

Nicaraguan Organizations   Reference library

Victoria González-Rivera and Richard Grossman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
1,210 words

...as NABBA. CONIPOE supported Nicaraguan Carlos Alvarez’s successful run for mayor of Miami–Dade County in the 2004 elections. Although the census reports fewer than 200,000 Nicaraguans living in the United States, La Estrella de Nicaragua , a conservative Miami-based newspaper, claims there are approximately 500,000. Thousands of them have obtained US citizenship. Unlike other Latin Americans, who can retain their original citizenship when they become US citizens, Nicaraguans cannot hold dual citizenship. The lack of dual citizenship limits the role that...

Global Cities and Processes, The Impact on Membership In

Global Cities and Processes, The Impact on Membership In   Reference library

Saskia Sassen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
1,506 words

...defined and toward the enactment of a large array of particular interests, from protests against police brutality and globalization to sexual preference politics and house squatting by anarchists. I interpret this as a move toward citizenship practices that revolve around claiming rights to the city. These are not exclusively or necessarily urban practices. But it is especially in large cities that we see simultaneously some of the most extreme inequalities as well as conditions enabling these citizenship practices. In global cities, these practices...

National Security

National Security   Reference library

Roberto Lovato

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
2,434 words

.... “Hey, Ken Burns, Why Shun Latinos?” New York Daily News , 11 May 2007. http://www.nydailynews.com/entertainment/tv-movies/hey-ken-burns-shun-latinos-article-1.252103 . Hispanic Americans in the United States Navy . http://www.history.navy.mil/Special%20Highlights/hispanic/Hispanic%20Americans%20in%20USN.pdf . Lopez, Mark Hugo , Ana Gonzalez-Barrera , and Seth Motel . As Deportations Rise to Record Levels, Most Latinos Oppose Obama’s Policy . Washington, D.C.: Pew Research Center, December 2011. http://www.pewhispanic.org/2011/12/28/as-deportations-r...

Militarization of the Border in the Late twentieth Century

Militarization of the Border in the Late twentieth Century   Reference library

Timothy Dunn and José Palafox

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
4,110 words

...Border Patrol, 2013. http://www.cbp.gov/sites/default/files/documents/U.S.%20Border%20Patrol%20Fiscal%20Year%20Staffing%20Statistics%201992-2013.pdf . US Border Patrol . Border Patrol Strategic Plan: 1994 and Beyond, National Strategy . Washington, D.C.: US Border Patrol, 1994. US Border Patrol . Sector Profile—Fiscal Year 2012 . Washington, D.C.: US Border Patrol, 2012. http://www.cbp.gov/sites/default/files/documents/U.S.%20Border%20Patrol%20Fiscal%20Year%202012%20Sector%20Profile.pdf . US Border Patrol . Sector Profile—Fiscal Year 2013 . Washington...

New Sanctuary Movement

New Sanctuary Movement   Reference library

Marta Caminero-Santangelo

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
2,108 words

...Sanctuary.” USA Today , 9 July 2010, 1a. Salvatierra, Alexia . “Sacred Refuge.” Sojourners Magazine 36, no. 9 (September/October 2007): 12–20. Sanctuary: National Newsletter of the New Sanctuary Movement . Issue 1 (January 2008). http://www.newsanctuarymovement.org . Terry, Diana . “The New Sanctuary Movement.” Hispanic , August 2007, 42–45. Van Biema, David . “Does the Bible Support Sanctuary?” Time , 20 July 2007. Marta...

Asian Latina/os

Asian Latina/os   Reference library

Evelyn Hu-DeHart

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
2,335 words

...feel part of a group, not with the Chinese, nor with the Americans, nor with the Cubans. But I identify most with the Cuban Americans, although they see me as Chinese Cuban.) Sandra has captured all the challenges and possibilities of being Asian Latina, an old historical phenomenon and an emerging new identity still in the process of formation, fueled in large part by new immigrants from Latin America who are of Asian or mixed-Asian heritage to a post–civil rights United States, in which old and new Americans of all races and heritages jostle to claim space...

Brazilians

Brazilians   Reference library

Ana Christina Braga Martes and Sarah Faleiros

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
3,714 words

...young, concentrating between the ages of twenty-one and thirty-four. The ratio of married to single respondents is almost even, with 45 percent claiming to be married and 45 percent claiming to be single. As for children, 55 percent had one child or more, and 55 percent lived with their children in the United States. The largest share (42 percent) of the Brazilian immigrants interviewed were high school graduates, 20 percent had some college but never graduated, 14 percent didn’t graduate from high school, 11 percent had a higher education degree, and only 4...

Military

Military   Reference library

Jorge Mariscal

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
2,097 words

...that Latinas and Latinos were well represented in the most dangerous sectors of the military apparatus. It is not surprising, then, to learn that, in the early stages of the US invasion of Iraq, Latinas and Latinos made up almost 20 percent of the fatalities. These statistics are less the result of a conscious conspiracy (a claim made by Latina and Latino antiwar activists since at least the American war in Southeast Asia) but rather the product of inferior educational and employment opportunities in civilian society. While on one level it is certainly true...

Operation Bootstrap/Section 936

Operation Bootstrap/Section 936   Reference library

Hector Cordero-Guzman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
2,602 words

...in the late 1980s to deal with Puerto Rico’s political status. At the time, there was consensus on the island that the political status needed modification, but the country was quite divided about the specific direction of the change. On the one hand, pro-statehood forces claimed that the pro-commonwealth government of Rafael Hernandez Colon (from 1984 to 1992 ) and its Fomento (Economic Development Administration) director Antonio Colorado had gone “too far” in extending Puerto Rico’s economic and political contacts with other countries and that there...

Immigrant Detention and Incarceration

Immigrant Detention and Incarceration   Reference library

Martha D. Escobar

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
2,571 words

...toward a carceral society, a society that relies on incarceration as a quick fix to perceived social problems, in part as a response to the militancy of 1960s and 1970s social movements. Of particular concern were movements by radical people of color, such as the Black Panther Party, which were represented through a lens of lawlessness and criminality. State representatives, including Richard Nixon, earned political influence by making claims that if elected, he would return “law and order” to the streets. Since policing crime is a local and state matter,...

Demographics

Demographics   Reference library

Angelo Falcón and Jessica Lavariega-Monforti

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
3,144 words

...and Latina population also generated much discussion about the “Latinization” of the United States. These developments had both positive and negative aspects to them. While Latino and Latina communities could use these numbers to make greater social, political, and economic claims on US society, there was also a backlash both in general terms, particularly in the area of immigration, and from Latinos’ and Latinas’ main historical allies in the civil rights movement, African Americans, many of whom felt threatened by these demographic changes. After 2000 ,...

Southeast, The

Southeast, The   Reference library

Elaine C. Lacy

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
4,985 words

...federal immigration law. Prince William County officials claimed that their immigration ordinances would reduce crime, rid communities of day-labor sites, and save the county money. By 2010 , detractors argued that just the opposite had occurred, and that the results had hurt community relations, damaged the local economy, and reduced law enforcement’s relations with Latinos, who, despite the departure of more than eight thousand Latinos (both legally and illegally in the area), still comprised 20 percent of county residents. As is the case nationwide, and...

Identity, Politics of

Identity, Politics of   Reference library

Suzanne Oboler, Deena J. González, Frances R. Aparicio, María de los Angeles Torres, and Silvio Torres-Saillant

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
6,860 words

...two national-origin groups neither chose to become part of the United States nor participated in that decision. Rather, having been conquered and colonized by the United States during the nineteenth century, they are more accurately referred to as historical minorities or, as some scholars have defined them, “colonized minorities.” Mexican Americans. Sectors of the Mexican American population are descendants of the conquest of the territories of the Southwest. Although not all Mexican-origin people can claim to be direct descendants of the original populations...

Human Rights

Human Rights   Reference library

Berta Esperanza Hernández-Truyol

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
3,134 words

...theme gender, again, is relevant. Women provide an interesting link to cultural protections as well as to the deconstruction of cultural tropes. There are women who enter the United States to avoid gender oppression. Two major asylum cases in US courts were based on Latinas’ claims of violence. In one, In the Matter of Rodi Alvarado , the Board of Immigration Appeals granted asylum to a woman from Guatemala who had been abused by her husband for a decade. In another case, In the Matter of L.R. , the Department of Homeland Security granted asylum to a...

Mexican Americans

Mexican Americans   Reference library

Ramón A. Gutiérrez

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
5,145 words

...with the oppressed peoples of the Third World. In solidarity with Native Americans, they claimed a repressed indigenous ancestry, putatively discovering direct genealogical links back to the Aztecs. They maintained that the Southwest was Aztlán, their ancestral homeland, and demanded its independence from the United States as a sovereign nation. Some of these militants were the remote descendants of Spaniards who had once conquered the Southwest, but they wanted no part of this European Spanish heritage. Chicanas and Chicanos instead proclaimed working-class...

Queer Political Movements

Queer Political Movements   Reference library

Darren Rosenblum

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
2,137 words
Illustration(s):
1

...some Latino/as continued to pursue a separate activism. This mainstreaming of Latino/a identity has continued apace within queer political movements in the past decade. From the late 1950s to the present, the popular usage of the term “queer” went from insult to political claim. Its early predominant use was as a pejorative term akin to “strange.” The proper term at that time was “homosexual.” “Gay” began to acquire popular currency in the 1960s and 1970s with the Gay Liberation movement, and attained more formal usage in the 1990s when at last the New...

Fashion

Fashion   Reference library

Aída Hurtado

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
2,804 words

...but not identical to the use of language. Fred Davis ( 1992 ) writes, “We know that through clothing people communicate some things about their persons, and at the collective level this results typically in locating them symbolically in some structural universe of status claims and life-style attachments” Capable of individual style, Latino/as also have a repertoire of fashion vocabularies that emanate from histories, social existences, and aesthetics derived from their cultures and their standing in the sociopolitical order. Although there is not one...

Employment Discrimination

Employment Discrimination   Reference library

Rebecca Morales

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
6,092 words

...    Female 23,756 12,405 18,381 24,928 32,507 41,845 57,314 Afr. Amer. 24,979 13,569 20,991 28,772 37,422 48,777 75,509     Male 28,821 16,391 25,849 31,885 42,530 54,642 (B)     Female 21,694 10,734 16,506 26,787 33,184 44,761 (B) Hispanic 22,096 16,106 20,704 29,329 36,212 50,576 64,029     Male 24,970 18,020 23,736 36,740 42,733 60,013 (B)     Female 18,187 12,684 16,653 22,695 29,249 41,118 (B) Source: United States Census Bureau, Current Population Reports , pp. 20–536. (B) Base figure too small to meet statistical standards for reliability of a...

Latinismo(s) and Latinidad

Latinismo(s) and Latinidad   Reference library

Silvio Torres-Saillant

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
5,274 words

...differences among Latinos, as well as to the sometimes overlapping or analogous histories and current structural problems—which is another way of saying our commitment to solidarity” ( 2007 , p. 219). North American Background The compulsion for Hispanics in the United States to claim belonging in a large Latino pan-ethnicity has its roots arguably in the social dynamics unleashed by Anglo-Spanish colonial competition on the North American mainland in the decades following the Jamestown settlement. By the late seventeenth century, powerful Anglo voices had set...

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