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Part 20 claim

Subject: Law

A claim other than a claim by the claimant against the defendant. It includes (1) a counterclaim by the defendant against the claimant; (2) a counterclaim by the defendant against a third ...

Emerging Powers

Emerging Powers   Reference library

Amitav Acharya

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,304 words

...G-20, speak for the South? Those G-20 members who are from the South all aspire to be leaders of the world, not just of the South. They are, after all, the emerging powers. Past leaders of the South, such as India's Nehru, China's Mao, and Egypt's Nasser, harbored no illusions about achieving global Great Power status, whether individually or collectively. Today, however, China, India, Brazil, and Japan all aspire to be global Great Powers. Moreover, the question is not just whether the G-20 speaks for the South, but also who speaks for the G-20. The G-20...

Potsdam Conference

Potsdam Conference   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
517 words

...Having already annexed a large section of eastern Poland, Stalin wanted the country to receive territorial compensation from Germany. He proposed a western border for Poland at the Oder and Neisse rivers. When asked about the millions of Germans in the territory, Stalin claimed that they had fled. Although the Western powers conceded the Oder-Neisse boundary as a “provisional solution” pending the final peace conference, the Soviets and the Poles made it permanent through the forcible expulsion of the German population. Although word of the atomic bomb...

Iraq

Iraq   Reference library

Peter Sluglett

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,750 words

...in force. Iraq's border with Kuwait has been an even greater bone of contention. Following the Anglo-Kuwaiti Treaty of 1899 , it was fixed under an Anglo-Ottoman Agreement in 1913 . In 1938 , 1961 , and again in 1990 , however, Iraqi officials made the claim that Kuwait was part of Iraq, a claim that only a tiny minority of Kuwaitis could ever be persuaded to entertain. Unfortunately, unlike the Iraqi/Turkish border, the border between Iraq and Kuwait had never been plotted out by a commission placing markers on the ground. In 1990 , in the most...

El Salvador

El Salvador   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,070 words

...strained the system by creating widespread unemployment. In 1932 , a peasant rebellion with ethnic connotations and some communist support exploded in the western provinces where most Indians (then 20 percent of the population) lived. The new military government of General Maximiliano Hernández Martínez ( 1882–1966 ) responded with massive repression that claimed more than 10,000 lives, many of them Indian. This event, known as the Matanza , sanctioned army rule in the eyes of the oligarchy and bound both groups together. Military governments sought to...

Gulf War

Gulf War   Reference library

James A. Paul

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,509 words

...Kuwait, her recorded comments can be interpreted to mean that the United States would take a disinterested stance in case of conflict. Some analysts point out that whatever the significance of Glaspie's message, the war must be seen as part of Iraq's thirty years of conflict in which the United States played a significant part, beginning with the Iran-Iraq War of 1980–1988 , continuing through the Gulf War of 1990–1991 , through the sanctions and no-fly period ( 1991–2003 ), to the US-led war and occupation ( 2003–2011 ). Some refer to the Kuwait-related...

Mozambique

Mozambique   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,731 words

...threatened to anull the party altogether and govern the country alone. The international community, eager to see stability in the country and promote investment, sided with the ruling party and supported the claim that the elections had indeed been fair. As a result, at the beginning of February 2000 , RENAMO announced that it had transferred part of its headquarters to Beira where it has some of its strongest supporting constituencies. The government stood steadfast in its threat to declare RENAMO illegal. Lawyers from both sides were deeply involved in...

The Globalization of Protest in Africa

The Globalization of Protest in Africa   Reference library

Marie-Emmanuelle Pommerolle

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
4,870 words

...not all claims and protests on the African continent are linked to the external world: some, like labor claims in rural areas or access to basic commodities in urban ghettos, can be understood at the local or regional level. But, as anywhere else, African territories, individuals, and governments interact with the outside world through recent migrations, old postcolonial relationships, virtual communication, and so on. International actors are also very active in some African countries, shaping development projects but also sometimes political claims. This...

Global Justice Movement

Global Justice Movement   Reference library

Catherine Eschle and Bice Maiguashca

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,663 words

...and to the promulgation of new policies. Along these lines, D. Christopher Brooks ( 2004 ) implies that the political significance of the global justice movement is limited to the extent that it has had little impact on international trade negotiations. Part of the reason for this, he claims, is the tolerance in activist circles of “violence” at countersummits, which he sees as marginalizing the movement within civil society and as giving states the grounds to exclude it from their negotiations. Marxist frameworks, in contrast, stress the need for a mass...

Sovereignty as a Resource and Curse in Africa

Sovereignty as a Resource and Curse in Africa   Reference library

Pierre Englebert

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
5,886 words

...opposition. They rely on the guarantees of their borders and the shielding of domestic affairs afforded them by international sovereignty to repress their domestic opponents or co-opt them with the resources of foreign aid. Similarly, Clapham ( 1996 ) claimed that African sovereignty was part of a pattern by African rulers of using foreign policy in order to control opposition at home. Building on the insights of these scholars and many others, Englebert ( 2009 , especially ch. 4) tried to further articulate the domestic benefits to African political...

Election Campaigns and Political Mobilization In Africa

Election Campaigns and Political Mobilization In Africa   Reference library

Dan Paget

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
12,498 words

...voters not only that they will deliver such policies, but that they can be trusted more than their rivals to do so. As these rivals have every reason to make the equivalent claims themselves, valence appeals are widely contested. Accordingly, parties and candidates alike dedicate substantial effort to lay claim to issues over their rivals. These patterns of issue ownership split in part between ruling and opposition parties ( Bleck & van de Walle, 2011 ). Corruption, executive abuses of power, and infringements on the rights of minorities are commonplace...

Aboriginal politics (historical)

Aboriginal politics (historical)   Reference library

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,736 words

..., Doug Nicholls and Bill Ferguson , some of whom had been in the AAPA, were involved with a camp of Aboriginal refugees and activists at Salt Pan Creek. The encampment, on the edges of metropolitan Sydney, was a crucible of political activity: this was where Jack Patten claimed to have ‘learnt’ his politics. In Melbourne in 1934 William Cooper , Doug Nicholls and others established the Australian Aborigines League ( AAL ). Other people of eminence in the early AAL were Shadrack James and Marge Tucker . White supporters in the AAL included...

Gulf War

Gulf War   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,303 words

...of 6 August imposed severe economic sanctions against Iraq. And eventually, Resolution 678 of 29 November authorized the use of force against Iraq. Although the United States obtained UN backing, it chose to act militarily and diplomatically with considerable autonomy. Claiming an imminent threat to the security of Saudi Arabia and the Persian Gulf oil-producing region, the U.S. administration of President George Bush rushed U.S. naval and ground units to the Gulf on 7 August , bypassing possible formation of a UN multinational force. Britain...

Media and Politics

Media and Politics   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,863 words

...of attack than was in fact the case ( Jamieson , Paul Waldman , and James Devitt , Mapping the Discourse of the 1996 US Presidential General Election, Media Culture and Society 20 [1998]: 323–338 ). While strategy is an integral part of any campaign, overemphasizing this aspect of the electoral process at the expense of substantive discussion of issues and candidates' claims has undesirable effects on the way voters think about the political process (Joseph N. Cappella and Jamieson, Spiral of Cynicism: The Press and the Public Good , New York, 1997 )....

North Atlantic Treaty Organization

North Atlantic Treaty Organization   Reference library

Scott Nicholas Romaniuk

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,552 words

...a “no-fly” zone in Libya and persistent operations throughout Afghanistan. Elimination of NATO's principle threat, when the Soviet Union finally collapsed in 1991 , ushered in renewed expectations of NATO folding in turn. The claim that NATO is on the brink of collapse has been relatively mainstay throughout its long tenure. No part of NATO's history can easily escape pronouncements of crisis ( Thies, 2009 ). Considering the issues of Suez, French withdrawal, the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, American criticism over issues of burden-sharing, 9/11, and...

Arbitration

Arbitration   Reference library

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,480 words

...degree of wage justice, critics have argued that arbitration disadvantages low‐paid workers by pricing them out of the market. This view parallels more general debates in labour economics about the employment impact of minimum wages. Supporters of arbitration, in contrast, have claimed that it serves as a means to correct an imbalance of bargaining power between employees and employers and that modest minimum wage increases have negligible effects on employment. The empirical evidence on the impact of arbitration on the general wages structure is largely...

Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,757 words

...of the majority of the people in the region. Should such a majority approve the establishment of a united Ireland, both governments agreed to support such legislation in their parliaments. Unionist opposition to the AIA surfaced quickly, shaped in part by a fear of secret deals with Sinn Fein and in part by a recognition that demographic changes might produce a Catholic majority within a generation. But the agreement set the stage for a peace process that brought about republican and loyalist cease-fire, a Joint Declaration for Peace in 1995 , and an...

Affirmative Action

Affirmative Action   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
7,974 words

...immeasurable, human potential when it lives in dark-skinned or female bodies. Commitments to the second set of numbers are defended in the name of fairness. In recent years, claims of merit have trumped African American's claims of fairness. The testocrats, those who believe in the first set of numbers, are certain that those who are capable of knowing the most will rise to become part of a competent and legitimate intellectual elites or mental theocracy. Thus, they satisfy concerns about fairness and equal opportunity when access to higher education—or...

Land-Related Conflict and Electoral Politics in Africa

Land-Related Conflict and Electoral Politics in Africa   Reference library

Catherine Boone

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
7,318 words

...negotiation and contestation over rights is part and parcel of daily life. For exceptions, see Boone and Nyeme ( 2015 ) . 5. For Kenya see Kanyinga ( 2009 ) ; Klopp ( 2001 ) ; Lynch ( 2011 ) ; Médard ( 1996 , 2009 ) ; Mueller ( 2011 ) ; Onoma ( 2010 ) ; Oucho ( 2002 ) . On Côte d’Ivoire see Dozon ( 1985 ) ; Chauveau ( 2000 ) ; Koné ( 2002 ) . On Zimbabwe, see Alexander ( 1994 ) ; Kriger ( 2007 ) ; Moyo and Yeros ( 2005 ) ; and on Rwanda, see Verwimp ( 2011 ) . 6. Interviews in Abidjan, October 20, 2010. 7. On Rwanda, see Verwimp ( 2011 ) ;...

Historical Approaches to African Politics

Historical Approaches to African Politics   Reference library

Steven Pierce

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
7,247 words

...claims upon the state, and yet more social infrastructure for political mobilization and for pursuing greater enfranchisement ( Cooper, 1996 ; Lindsay, 2003 ). 6 The fraught and often violent negotiations between workers and the colonies’ economic overlords were more than a matter of reworking the nuances of “development” as a concept. The debates over social entitlement and the moral obligations of colonial states to their subjects led to a much wider set of critiques of colonialism and theories about the nature of colonial citizenship. The claims to...

Afghanistan

Afghanistan   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,655 words

...regime, over 4 million returned, but war damage, economic disruption, and fear of either persecution or antipersonnel mines blocked the return of the remainder. As a result of this sequence of events, Afghanistan has no “national” political system. Rather, different groups claim “control” over different areas within the country. Despite the Talibān movement's occupation of Kabul in September 1996 , the Credentials Committee of the United Nations General Assembly declined to grant it Afghanistan's UN seat, which remained in the hands of the Rabbani...

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