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Part 20 claim

Subject: Law

A claim other than a claim by the claimant against the defendant. It includes (1) a counterclaim by the defendant against the claimant; (2) a counterclaim by the defendant against a third ...

ordinary share

ordinary share  

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The UK term for a share in the equity of a company. The US equivalent term is common stock. The holder of an ordinary share is entitled to share in any distribution of dividends in proportion to the ...
Grazing and Ranch Farming

Grazing and Ranch Farming   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
1,271 words
Illustration(s):
1

...gauchos who monitored the livestock. Somewhat similar, extremely large ranches of 20,000 acres or more also appeared in Texas, where federal land laws did not apply. In both areas there emerged a skewed distribution of landownership, wealth, and political influence that continued through the nineteenth and most of the twentieth centuries, particularly in South America. In the rest of the United States, large ranchers had to compete with small farmers or homesteaders for claims to rangeland. At the end of the Civil War, rising cattle prices brought settlement of...

Ricardo, John Lewis

Ricardo, John Lewis (1812–62)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of British Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
491 words

...for the abolition of the intellectual property rights system. His basic argument was that technological inventions were predominantly a social creation of collective, cumulative and interrelated work to which many people contributed and therefore no one person should be able to claim the property. He believed that the concept of ‘intellectual property’ decreased the moral rights for most subscribers to the system. However, his arguments may have had a reduced impact, given that he was chairman of the Electric Telegraph Company which, under Wheatstone’s patents...

Harris, Joseph

Harris, Joseph (1702–64)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of British Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
1,087 words

...the possibility of hoarding ( 1757 : 73). He also analysed the various sources for increasing the volume of money in circulation ( 1758 : 20–1), and argued against the alternation of the money standard and the money level of prices (i.e., inflation) which he claimed to be a harmful cause for reducing the real rate of the contractual incomes ( 1758 : 24–5, 32–3) BIBLIOGRAPHY Essay upon Money and Coins , Part I (1757), Part II (1758). Further Reading Hutchison, T. , Before Adam Smith: The Emergence of Political Economy, 1662–1776 (Oxford, 1988). Johnson, E.A....

Famines

Famines   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
2,749 words
Illustration(s):
1

...range from 2 to 8 million, while those of deaths from the Chinese Great Leap Forward famine range from 15 to 43 million. Claims that the Chinese famine was the largest in history gloss over uncertainties about its true toll, and ignore estimates of 20 to 30 million deaths from famine in China between 1876 and 1900 and a further 12 to 20 million deaths in India over the same period. Twentieth-century famines were for the most part “small.” Most famine victims die not of literal starvation but of infectious diseases, such as typhoid fever, typhus, malaria...

Choice Inconsistencies in the Demand for Private Health Insurance

Choice Inconsistencies in the Demand for Private Health Insurance   Reference library

Olena Stavrunova

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
13,203 words
Illustration(s):
7

...data set on 20% of Medicare beneficiaries that included detailed information on Medicare claims, including Part D, for 2006–2008 . As in Abaluck and Gruber ( 2011 ) , the individual-level data were supplemented by detailed information about characteristics of Part D plans in each individual’s choice set, provided by the CMS. Using a sophisticated algorithm, the authors simulated consumers’ prospective out-of-pocket costs associated with every plan in their choice set using detailed information on their past prescription drug claims and premiums and...

Hodgskin, Thomas

Hodgskin, Thomas (1787–1869)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of British Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
2,546 words

.... BIBLIOGRAPHY An Essay on Naval Discipline shewing Part of Its Evil Effects on The Minds of The Officers, On The Minds of The Men, And on The Community, With An Amended System By Which Pressing May Be Immediately Abolished (1813). Travels in North Germany Describing The Present State of the Social And Political Institutions, Agriculture, Manufactures, Commerce, Education, Arts And Manners In That Country, Particularly In The Kingdom of Hannover , 2 vols (Edinburgh, 1820). Labour Defended against the Claims of Capital or the Unproductiveness of Capital proved...

Health Insurance and the Demand for Healthcare

Health Insurance and the Demand for Healthcare   Reference library

Michael Gerfin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
10,323 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of Choosing Wisely. 17. Abaluck, Gruber, and Swanson ( 2015 ) also find evidence for limited price salience in Medicare Part D. 18. Studies analyzing the choice behavior of employees in private firms are, for example, Handel ( 2013 ) and Handel and Kolstad ( 2015 ) . 19. An analysis of the claims data of a large Swiss health insurance company reveals that the top 10% spenders account for almost 60% of total healthcare spending. 20. Eliason et al. ( 2016 ) cite a Wall Street Journal article that describes a meeting during which hospital staffers...

Schumpeter, Elizabeth Boody

Schumpeter, Elizabeth Boody (1898–1953)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of American Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
1,514 words

...and Democracy in 1942 . More generally, she ‘provided the agreeable and hospitable background which was essential to her husband’; her own work was ‘deliberately put aside in order that she might devote more time to her husband's interests’ ( Gilboy 1960 : vi). She herself claimed to have done everything possible to accommodate her husband's ‘nerves and health’ ( Swedberg 1991 : 123). This was plainly understood by Joseph Schumpeter 's colleague Arthur Smithies who, after Joseph's death, wrote: ‘Without [Elizabeth's] companionship and single-minded...

Douglas, Clifford Hugh

Douglas, Clifford Hugh (1879–1952)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of British Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
1,962 words

...Clifford Hugh ( 1879–1952 ) Douglas was born in Stockport, Cheshire on 20 January 1879 , and died at Dundee on 20 September 1952; he is buried in Aberfeldy on the shore of Loch Tay. Of humble origins, Douglas acquired qualifications in engineering, becoming a member of the Institute of Electrical Engineers in 1904 . Subsequently, he worked as consulting engineer to a number of companies, including the Canadian General Electric Company, Lachine Rapids Hydraulic Construction, Buenos Aires and Pacific Railway, British Westinghouse Company in India and...

Thornton, William Thomas

Thornton, William Thomas (1813–80)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of British Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
2,043 words

...Economist (1867b) 15 December. On Labour. Its Wrongful Claims and Rightful Dues. Its Actual Present and Possible Future (1869). ‘John Stuart Mill: His Career in the India House’(1873). ‘ Professor Cairnes on Value ’, Contemporary Review (1876), October. ‘ The Wages Fund ’, Nineteenth Century (1879), August. The Economic Writings of William Thornton , ed. P. Mirowski (1999). Further Reading Bain, A. , John Stuart Mill: A Criticism (1882). Cairnes, J.E. , ‘ The ‘Law ’, The Economist (1866) 20 October and 3 November. ——, Some Leading Principles of...

Senior, Nassau William

Senior, Nassau William (1790–1864)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of British Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
3,125 words

...is influenced by technological progress, and this is the main instrument determining the rate of export and import of various goods (including precious metals) ( 1830 : 16–20). He strongly criticized mercantilist doctrine and policies ( 1830 : 26–7), and championed the free trade approach as a mechanism of economic growth and increase of economic welfare on a global scale ( 1830 : 20–4). He extended the principle of the division of labour as a source of society’s formation to a globalized economy ( 1830 : 28). In the Easter term 1830 Senior delivered his...

Defoe, Daniel

Defoe, Daniel (1660–1731)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of British Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
3,256 words

...shipping insurer, civet cat breeder, civil servant, part owner of a brick-and-tile works, hack writer, convict, journalist, political agitator, government spy, poet, newspaper editor, pamphleteer and novelist. Defoe was active in the opposition to James II, fighting with Monmouth’s cavalry at Sedgemoor. He opposed James’s Declaration of Indulgence and joined William’s army at Windsor in December 1688 . He travelled widely and spoke several European languages. His fortunes were erratic. In mid-life, he claimed he had been rich and poor thirteen times. He was...

Jewkes, John

Jewkes, John (1902–88)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of British Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
3,876 words

...economic ideas consistently and courageously from the beginning of his career to the end. To Read Jewkes is to realize that economics does still have some claim to be the ‘queen of the social sciences’. It is a claim hopelessly compromised by those who tried to add to her dominions and her prestige by dressing her in ever more elaborate and extravagant garb and by making ever more exaggerated claims on her behalf. Jewkes was the ambassador of a discipline modestly attired, jealous of her territory but at peace with her neighbours, aware of her limits but...

Slave Trade

Slave Trade   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
3,688 words
Illustration(s):
1

...on published data, Curtin concluded that, ±20 percent, some 9.4 million enslaved Africans landed in America during the history of the transatlantic slave trade. Curtin did not attempt to estimate the number of slaves taken from Africa, but assuming that 15 percent of those shipped died in transit, Curtin's 9.4 million arrivals figure translates into an estimate of shipments from Africa of, ±20 percent, just over 11 million people. This represented a substantial downward revision of most previous claims about the scale of the Atlantic slave trade and,...

Wilson, James

Wilson, James (1805–60)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of British Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
2,036 words

...monopolizing law-makers, or the manufacturers as sordid, avaricious beings, grasping at the riches of the great, and treading on the rights of the poor’ ( 1839 : vi). Instead of attacking the aristocracy he focused on the Corn Laws’ destabilizing effect on prices, which he claimed was as bad for farmers and landlords as it was for manufacturers. When corn prices were high, he argued, farmers incorrectly gauged demand and planted more corn than was needed, which subsequently swung prices against them. The same logic held for capitalists, who took advantage...

Health Economics of the Workplace: Workplace Accidents and Effects of Job Loss and Retirement

Health Economics of the Workplace: Workplace Accidents and Effects of Job Loss and Retirement   Reference library

Jan C. van Ours

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
9,871 words

...21.3 71.0 67.2 11.6 19.1 Czech Republic 16.2 20.0 62.5 60.8 18.7 24.2 Denmark 18.2 20.8 63.7 63.1 19.5 22.7 Estonia 15.6 20.9 64.8 65.3 15.8 20.6 Finland 18.2 21.9 63.2 62.5 20.0 24.4 France 19.4 23.5 60.0 60.3 24.4 28.2 Germany 18.1 21.3 63.3 63.2 19.8 23.1 Greece 18.9 21.7 62.0 60.2 21.9 26.5 Hungary 14.6 18.7 63.6 60.7 16.0 23.0 Iceland 18.7 21.3 69.7 67.2 14.0 19.1 Ireland 18.6 21.1 66.9 63.5 16.7 22.6 Israel 19.5 21.6 69.3 66.5 15.2 20.1 Italy 19.4 22.9 62.1 61.3 22.3 26.6 Japan 19.6 24.4 70.2 68.8 14.4 20.6 Korea 18.4 22.6 72.0 72.2 11.4 15.4 Latvia...

London

London   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
1,491 words
Illustration(s):
1

...provided. From the late nineteenth century on, London regained some of its earlier position, but it could no longer claim to be the only town in England that was of serious international consequence. L ondon . Opening of the Great Industrial Exhibition of All Nations, 1 May 1851. Engraving by George M. Cruikshank (1792–1878). (Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress) T able 1. London's Population, 1100–1981 1100 c.20,000 1300 80,000–100,000 1400 40,000–50,000 1550 75,000 1600 200,000 1650 400,000 1700...

Longe, Francis Davy

Longe, Francis Davy (1831–1910)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of British Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
1,349 words

... The Law of Trade Combinations in France ( 1867 ). Neither Thornton nor Mill mentioned the critique by Longe, who made the following remark in the second edition of A Refutation of the Wage-Fund Theory with reference to a passage in Mill’s recantation: ‘I cannot refrain from claiming the admission he has now made…as strong evidence of the soundness of my argument’ ( 1869 : iv). Thornton was also suspected of plagiarism (Hollander 1904 : 3–6), a possibility ruled out some years later by F.A. Walker , who acknowledged the decided superiority of Longe’s...

Microinsurance and Rural Health

Microinsurance and Rural Health   Reference library

Syed Abdul Hamid

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
6,724 words

...2011 • CAGR = +136% Controlling claims costs • Claims ratio increased from 2009 (93%) to 2010 (139%) • Claims ratio fell to 40% in 2012 • Claims ratio is the lowest of any of the claims ratios in the study • Claims ratio decreased from 2010 (41%) to 2012 (27%) • Reasons behind this favorable claims ratio compared to other insurers participating in the scheme are unknown • GK does not report “claims paid” • Claims ratio increased over the study period • Claims ratio increased from 2009 (58%) to 2012 (83%) • Claims ratio increased dramatically between...

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