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Part 20 claim

Subject: Law

A claim other than a claim by the claimant against the defendant. It includes (1) a counterclaim by the defendant against the claimant; (2) a counterclaim by the defendant against a third ...

idols

idols   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
951 words

...practices. In Galatians 4: 8, Paul argues that pagan gods have no substance, following the prophets who claim that idols are nothing but stone and wood (Jeremiah 16: 20) and utterly vacuous (Isaiah 44: 14–17). Paul argues in 1 Corinthians 10: 19 that in venerating idols one calls on demons. Early Christian thinkers developed the claim that in worshipping idols one worships the demonic. According to Augustine , for example, by venerating part of the created realm as god, idolaters subvert the natural order and pay service to demonic forces. Rather than...

Cockroaches

Cockroaches   Reference library

The New Encyclopedia of Insects and their Allies (3 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
2,446 words
Illustration(s):
3

...thereby giving them a head start. Unlikely Carers Parental Care One of the largest cockroaches in the world is Macropanesthia rhinocerus (Blaberidae), which can reach up 70mm (2.8in) in length and weigh as much as 20g (0.7oz). This species is only found in northern Queensland, Australia, where it lives in burrows that can be up to 6m (20ft) in length and 1m (3.3ft) in depth. The adults are completely wingless and live in family groups, even practising parental care. The nymphs, which are paler and softer than the adults, would be an easy target for...

Rhinoceroses

Rhinoceroses   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Mammals (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
2,877 words
Illustration(s):
5

...over their offspring should danger threaten. Males mature at about 7–8 years of age in the wild; but they are prevented from breeding until they can claim their first territories, or attain dominant status, at about 10 years. Births may take place in any month of the year, but among the African rhinos conceptions tend to peak during the rains, so that most babies are born during the early part of the dry season. The mother's milk supply helps nourish them through this difficult time. Although white rhino calves begin to nibble on grass when they are...

chemical warfare

chemical warfare   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
1,223 words

...to injure or kill humans occurred between 1915–18 . In the intervening years chemical agents have been used in other wars. Italy used mustard gas against Ethiopian forces in 1935–6 . Japan is alleged to have used mustard gas against Chinese forces in 1938 . In 1967 , Britain claimed that an asphyxiating chemical agent had been used by Egypt against Yemeni troops. Chemical warfare, however, is not only about lethal agents. Many countries adhere to the view that the use of chemical defoliants by the US in the Vietnam War both to remove the forest canopy and to...

Pikas

Pikas   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Mammals (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
2,266 words
Illustration(s):
2

...can live for up to 6 years – the appearance and whereabouts of vacant territories on the talus are unpredictable. For a pika, therefore, trying to secure a vacancy on the talus is like entering a lottery in which an animal's sex in part determines whether or not it will have a winning ticket, for territories are almost always claimed by a member of the same sex as the previous occupant. The behaviors that sustain this pattern of occupancy are apparently a compromise between the contrasting aggressive and affiliative tendencies of the pika. Although all pikas are...

Chimpanzees

Chimpanzees   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Mammals (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
4,926 words
Illustration(s):
5

...or human researchers. Some evidence suggests that this is because they can understand that others have desires and knowledge states like their own – that is, that they possess a “theory of mind” somewhat like that of humans. However, this claim is currently a topic of debate. Male chimpanzees and bonobos are 10–20 percent larger than females and are considerably stronger. They also have larger canine teeth, which are their main weapons. Otherwise, males and females have similar body proportions. Starting at adolescence, females develop periodic swellings...

eye movements

eye movements   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
2,084 words
Illustration(s):
2

...To convince yourself how quickly visual resolution falls off in the peripheral retina, try to read the words at the edges of the page of a book while holding your eye fixedly on the middle of the page. Whatever the merits of ‘speed reading’, there is no possibility, as some claim, that every word can be recognized if the line of sight is simply moved down the middle of the page. Fig. 1 The optokinetic response to rotation of the visual surround. A proper classification of human eye movements, still valid, was provided by the American psychologist Raymond...

Wolves

Wolves   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Mammals (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
3,471 words
Illustration(s):
7

...( C. l. nubilis ), white to black in color. Conservation status: Least Concern. head–body length 100–150cm (40–58in); tail length 31–51cm (13–20in); shoulder height 66–100cm (26–39in); weight 12–75kg (27–165lb); males larger than females. Coat: usually gray to tawny buff, but varies from white (in N tundra) through red and brown to black; underside pale. Breeding: gestation 61–63 days. Longevity: 8–16 years (to 20 in captivity). Red wolf Canis rufus SE USA. Coastal plains, forests. weight 15–30kg (33–66lb); size intermediate between gray wolf and coyote...

Elephants

Elephants   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Mammals (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
6,457 words
Illustration(s):
8

...over Long Distances Elephants make calls that are rich in infrasound – sound below the range of human hearing. Forest elephants make calls as low as 5Hz, two octaves below the lowest sounds that humans ordinarily hear (c. 2020,000Hz). Many of the calls of Asian and of African savanna elephants have fundamental frequencies of 14–20Hz. A person standing close to a calling elephant may hear a soft rumble, but at even a short distance some calls that are perfectly audible to elephants are not perceived by humans. Elephants use their calls in long-distance...

Horses, Zebras, and Asses

Horses, Zebras, and Asses   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Mammals (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
3,861 words
Illustration(s):
7

...of birth. They start grazing within a few weeks, but are generally not weaned for 8–13 months. Females can breed annually, but most miss a year because of the strains of rearing foals. Redesigning the Human Relationship Conservation and Environment Of the 20 equid subspecies identified at the start of the 20th century, 3 are now extinct and 13 threatened. Although no Przewalski's horses were seen in the wild after 1968 , recent reintroductions from the world's zoos have been successful and a number of small but expanding populations in Mongolia are thriving....

Marsupials

Marsupials   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Mammals (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
4,043 words
Illustration(s):
7

...now-extinct family Stagodontidae, has been dated at about 80 million years from other fossil deposits in Utah. At least 20 other genera of slightly younger Cretaceous marsupials are known from other North American sites, suggesting that the group originated in that region. Despite their early ascendancy in the north, marsupials soon dwindled there as placental mammals increased in diversity, and they became extinct in North America by 20–15 million years ago. The one presently extant marsupial in North America, the Virginia opossum, recolonized less than 1...

Koala

Koala   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Mammals (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
2,078 words
Illustration(s):
3

...among the southern populations, a fact that is thought to reflect the homogenizing effect of the extensive translocation program that has occurred there. Habitat loss is threatening the viability of many koala populations, particularly in the northern part of their range. Urban and tourist developments are claiming important areas of habitat in coastal regions, but the situation is especially serious in the semiarid woodlands of central Queensland, where around 400,000 hectares (1 million acres) are being cleared annually for pastoral and other agricultural...

Codfishes, Anglerfishes, and Allies

Codfishes, Anglerfishes, and Allies   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Underwater Life

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
7,683 words
Illustration(s):
5

...but variable in salinity. The Mexican blind cavefish ( Ogilbia pearsei ), found only in Balaam Canche Cave, in Yucatán, Mexico, is extremely rare, known from only a very few specimens. Its eyes are minute and covered by skin. Species of the genus Lucifuga have the best claim to being freshwater members of the family. Their coloration is remarkably variable, ranging from off-white to deep violet or dark brown. They give birth to fully formed young. The Nassau cavefish ( Lucifuga spelaeotes ) is known only from a single isolated population in the Bahamas...

Small Cats

Small Cats   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Mammals (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
5,428 words
Illustration(s):
11

...interbreed with what we know as the wildcat. Yet the question of what defines a wildcat is of more than academic interest. On Scottish grouse moors, wildcats are highly protected by law, whereas feral domestics are regarded as pests that can legally be shot. Wildcats have been claimed to have a distinctive coat pattern; to attain a certain size; to have a reduced‐size intestine; to exhibit a distinct skull morphology; and to be genetically different. It has also been asserted that wildcats are distinct in their susceptibility to disease, have lower and more...

Colobus and Leaf Monkeys

Colobus and Leaf Monkeys   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Mammals (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
9,656 words
Illustration(s):
2

...the major part of their home range. Purple‐faced leaf monkey troops often temporarily desert their home range in order to attack an adjacent troop; while the adult male purple‐faced leaf monkey has such a fastidious sense of territory that it has been seen to chastize fellow troop members for transgressing into other territories. Other Hanuman langur populations, and other species such as the Mentawai sureli, the Nilgiri langur, and the capped leaf monkey, have exclusive core areas that include important sleeping and feeding trees, and that occupy 20–50 percent...

New World Monkeys

New World Monkeys   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Mammals (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
10,106 words
Illustration(s):
7

...forests of San Martín (eastern part) and Amazonas (western part), at altitudes of 1,700–2,000m (5,500–8,860ft). Considered to number fewer than 250 individuals. head–body length 52cm (female); tail length 56cm (male); weight 10.0kg. Coat: medium brown except for yellow underside to tail at tip around naked prehensile portion; fur on nose and mouth whitish. Leaf Eaters of the New World Diet and energy conservation in howler monkeys First‐time visitors to the neotropics often emerge from the forest in great excitement, claiming to have heard a lion or some...

Turtles and Tortoises

Turtles and Tortoises   Reference library

The New Encyclopedia of Reptiles and Amphibians (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
11,878 words
Illustration(s):
24

...substance and a claimed cure for cancer. Traditionally the collection and exploitation of Asian tortoises and freshwater turtles were matters of subsistence use and modest regional trade, largely constrained by economic factors. In regions where trade was relatively unrestrained and where consumers had significant purchasing power, such as Taiwan and Hong Kong, dwindling local supplies of native turtles were augmented by imports. The relaxation of restrictions on private enterprise and the introduction of a convertible currency as part of Deng Xiaoping's...

Lizards

Lizards   Reference library

The New Encyclopedia of Reptiles and Amphibians (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
20,393 words
Illustration(s):
35

...bony plates called osteoderms. A curious feature of lizards is their development of the pineal body. The 17th-century French philosopher René Descartes claimed that the pineal body in the human brain was the point at which mind and body interact. He saw the pineal as an eye for the immortal soul, communicating to it the sensory intake of the material body. In lizards at least, it seems that this part of the brain is indeed connected to a sort of “third eye,” but it connects the animal only with the physical world. A cranial bone is perforated at this point...

Mammal Conservation: Planning for an Uncertain Future

Mammal Conservation: Planning for an Uncertain Future   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Mammals (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
6,027 words
Illustration(s):
3

... Leontopithecus caissara , was first described in 1990 , in Atlantic forest just 200km (124mi) from Sao Paulo city. One man, Marc Van Roosmalen, has described 5 new species of Amazonian monkey, including two new species of Callicebus in 2002 (and claims to have discovered another 20 new species in the region). Between 1990 and 1995 two new species (and three new subspecies) of tree kangaroo were described from New Guinea – most recently the dingiso, or black‐and‐white tree kangaroo, Dendrolagus mbaiso , from the Sudirman Mountains of Papua...

Rodents

Rodents   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Mammals (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
8,136 words
Illustration(s):
8

...is when little food is available to them and when populations are low (probably just before breeding). Avant-garde methods of rodent control involving such relatively novel means as chemosterilants, ultrasonic sound, or electromagnetism are sometimes suggested, but none can yet claim to be as effective as anticoagulant rodenticides. Species at Risk Conservation and Environment Not all rodents have thrived with the spread of humans. At least 54 species have become extinct in the last two centuries, and another 380 currently face a similar fate. At greatest risk...

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