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Part 20 claim

Subject: Law

A claim other than a claim by the claimant against the defendant. It includes (1) a counterclaim by the defendant against the claimant; (2) a counterclaim by the defendant against a third ...

Abortion Debates and Science

Abortion Debates and Science   Reference library

Tracy A. Weitz and Carole Joffe

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...Abortion and women’s mental health. The claim that abortion harms women’s mental health dates to the early 1980s when abortion opponents began promoting a concept of a posttraumatic stress disorder from abortion. The concept was first introduced in 1981 by Vincent Rue, PhD, a psychologist opposed to abortion rights, in testimony before Congress in which he stated that he had diagnosed posttraumatic stress disorder in abortion recipients. In 1988 the president, Ronald Reagan, who had been elected in part because of massive support by abortion rights...

Telephone

Telephone   Reference library

Robert MacDougall

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...in 1878 . The telegraph giant would have been a formidable foe for the fledgling Bell Company had it not come under attack at just that moment by the financier Jay Gould. Western Union struck a deal with Bell Telephone, agreeing to forfeit Gray’s claims and withdraw from the new industry in exchange for 20 percent of the earnings on Bell’s telephone for the duration of its patent—about $7 million over the next 15 years. It was this out-of-court settlement, not the race to the patent office in 1876 , which meant Alexander Graham Bell would be remembered...

Franklin, Benjamin

Franklin, Benjamin   Reference library

Joyce E. Chaplin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...charged, it was another of Franklin’s theories that made an openly political claim. In 1751 , Franklin had composed some “Observations on the Increase of Mankind.” In this, he hypothesized that, because North America offered plentiful land to its settler inhabitants, they could marry young and produce families larger than those found in Europe. In subsequent iterations of the essay, Franklin settled on the estimate that the colonial population was doubling in size every 20 years. (The first U.S. census, of 1790 , would bear him out.) The implication was...

Pharmacology and Drug Therapy

Pharmacology and Drug Therapy   Reference library

Jeremy A. Greene

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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2015

...Public Citizen began to call for closer examinations of the “irrational” influence of pharmaceutical marketing on physicians and consumers. These critiques would later be extended by communities of HIV/AIDS activists, and, separately, by those of racial and ethnic groups all claiming to have been excluded from the process of research and regulatory protocols. Over the 1970s and 1980s, activist critiques of the pharmaceutical industry and the FDA often moved in contradictory ways: some groups focused on the problems of relative neglect and lack of access to...

Pediatrics

Pediatrics   Reference library

Jeffrey P. Baker

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...the spirit so dominant in the Progressive Era. Fittingly, women began to reclaim their legacy as the inventors of well-child care, entering the profession in ever greater numbers. By the early twentieth-first century they accounted for the majority of new general pediatricians. A claim could also be made, however, that another “new pediatrics” emerged in the guise of high-technology pediatric care. Bone-marrow transplantation, intensive-care units, surgery for congenital heart disease, and spectacular organ transplantations have become symbols of how far the...

Law and Science

Law and Science   Reference library

Tal Golan

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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2015

...reluctant to extend the same leniency to the private sphere of tort litigation. The claims made in this sphere were about actual harm and were treated differently. Tort law required the plaintiff to offer a persuasive proof of a concrete and actual harm caused by the defendant. Anything less, the courts held, would be unfair to the defendant, who should not be forced to pay for injuries he or she did not cause. Tort, a branch of private law that deals with personal injury claims, had prided itself on its tradition of individualized approach. Its clients were...

Robots

Robots   Reference library

Lisa Nocks

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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2015

...allowing clients to compare cost and productivity against human labor. He has claimed that no one ever returned a rental. After General Motors ordered three dozen Unimates for its plant in Lordstown, Ohio, other businesses followed. Initially, companies used industrial robots in hazardous applications including forging and die-casting. Subsequently, General Motors led in the U.S. use of industrial robots for such operations as welding, spray-painting, and assembly. During the next 20 years, improvements were made in programming, sensing, maneuverability, and...

Gender and Science

Gender and Science   Reference library

Londa Schiebinger

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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2015

...1979 ), contending that the failure of women to rise to the top resulted from their lesser contribution to scientific knowledge, their lower productivity, lesser citation rates, and so forth. According to Cole, science is “fair”; women are to blame for their poor showing. Cole’s claims spawned a minor industry among sociologists and university administrators aimed at producing precise measures of scientific productivity, the coin of the realm garnering resources and rewards. As the decades progressed, analysts came to realize that men outproduce women because...

Medical Education

Medical Education   Reference library

Ronald L. Numbers

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...$3–5 to matriculate, $15 per ticket for specific courses, $5–10 to attend a dissection, and $15–20 to graduate. Although the proprietary schools sometimes obtained their charters from existing colleges and universities, they had no real academic or financial connection to the “parent” institution. Occasionally, a medical society or a hospital would launch a medicine school, and in 1825 the University of Virginia opened a medical department as an integral part of the university with a full-time professor on salary ( Norwood, 1944 , pp. 381–384, 392–395,...

Foundations and Health

Foundations and Health   Reference library

Kevin A. Walters

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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2015

...of scientific research at the school. By the 1960s, with the government claiming exclusive rights to more and more university science and then neglecting to develop that science into useful inventions, the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation watched their patenting and licensing activity begin to dwindle. More important, across the country the creation of new technologies based on groundbreaking university research had stalled out. Less than 1 percent of the 30 thousand government-claimed inventions had been developed into an actual product in the marketplace....

Research And Development

Research And Development   Reference library

Steven W. Usselman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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2015

... and a hundred-fold by 1960 , the NIH claimed a progressively larger share of the rapidly expanding federal pie. When Eisenhower left office, it accounted for 4.5 percent of federal R&D, and its share climbed to 7.1 percent during the Kennedy years before plateauing under Johnson. Still, expenditures on medical research lagged far behind the shares commandeered in 1968 by defense (52 percent) and space (27 percent). With curtailment of the space program and the relative decline in public support for R&D, the NIH claimed a steadily larger share of a more...

Physics

Physics   Reference library

Benjamin Wilson and David Kaiser

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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2015

...American gentry could keep abreast of the latest scientific developments in Europe through correspondence with the society’s members. John Winthrop Jr.—governor of the Connecticut Colony, designer of iron works, and owner of a three-foot telescope (in 1664 Winthrop famously claimed to have observed a fifth moon of Jupiter)—was the first American elected Fellow of the Royal Society, during his visit there in 1661–1663 . The curricula offered at the oldest colleges—Harvard (founded 1636 ), William and Mary ( 1693 ), and Yale ( 1701 )—typically included...

HIV/AIDS

HIV/AIDS   Reference library

Gerald M. Oppenheimer and Ronald Bayer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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2015

...threat of death hovered over the process. As Carol Levine noted in her 1988 essay “Has AIDS Changed the Ethics of Human Subjects Research?” “the shortage of proven therapeutic alternatives for AIDS and the belief that trials are, in and of themselves, beneficial have led to the claim that people have a right to be research subjects. This is the exact opposite of the tradition starting with Nuremberg—that people have a right not to be research subjects” (p. 172). That striking reversal resulted in a rejection of the model of research conducted at academic...

Medicine

Medicine   Reference library

Ronald L. Numbers, Eric Howard Christianson, John Harley Warner, Harry M. Marks, Harry M. Marks, and Naomi Rogers

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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2015

...came under assaults from antiorthodox healers. Samuel Thomson’s botanic system of domestic practice, consolidated by his New Guide to Health ( 1822 ), gained a large following. Thomsonians attacked heroic medicine and tapped into the Jacksonian Era’s egalitarian distrust of claims to privilege based on special learning. Eclecticism (a parallel botanical healing system in which professional practitioners supplanted self-help), hydropathy (water cure), and a wider health-reform movement flourished in the 1840s and 1850s. During the same decades homeopathy,...

Diplomacy (Post-1945), Science and Technology AND

Diplomacy (Post-1945), Science and Technology AND   Reference library

John Krige

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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2015

...sensitive countries at international conferences and workshops, debriefing them when they returned home. The humanities and social sciences played their part too. The Department of State placed great store in training diplomats in foreign languages for new international responsibilities. The military needed people who were competent in foreign languages for intelligence purposes. They also invested over $20 million in machine translation between 1945 and the mid-1960s, one of the first uses of computers for nonnumerical tasks. Organizations like the American...

Environmentalism

Environmentalism   Reference library

Christian C. Young

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...techniques. With expanded government oversight and the addition of bureaus that could command the labor of thousands of workers, remote parcels of land became interconnected forests, parks, byways, riverways, and preservation areas. Rustic lodges and interpretive centers claimed for the public what had in some locations become commercialized natural attractions surrounded by hotels and amusements. The American park ideal—established in Yellowstone and Yosemite during decades of relative prosperity—became a public institution through the efforts of the...

Engineering

Engineering   Reference library

Ann Johnson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...functions of the firm. Large laboratory facilities were also part of the R&D missions of chemical firms like DuPont, Eastman Kodak, and Standard Oil, electrical firms like General Electric and American Telephone and Telegraph, and eventually automobile and aviation firms like Ford, General Motors, and Boeing. Thomas Edison was particularly proud of his “Invention Factory,” first in Menlo Park and then in West Orange, New Jersey. By the mid-twentieth century, a research department was as much a part of corporate culture as a mailroom. For some corporations,...

Higher Education and Science

Higher Education and Science   Reference library

Roger L. Geiger

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

... I. Science and education now became part of Cold War competition—and the United States appeared to be losing. Federal policy quickly endorsed an expansion of basic research. A report chaired by Berkeley physicist Glenn Seaborg ( 1960 ) emphasized research as a crucial investment; academic research and graduate education were essential to the national welfare and hence a responsibility of the federal government. Moreover, it recommended doubling the number of first-rate centers of academic science from 15 to 20 universities to 30 to 40. From 1960 to ...

Military, Science and Technology and The

Military, Science and Technology and The   Reference library

Michael Aaron Dennis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...vats with electrical stirring apparatus. By 1943 , the War Production Board authorized the construction of 19 fermentation plants at a cost of $20 million. Production proceeded with great alacrity; by December 1944 fermentation plants yielded over 290,000 million units and by June 1945 over 600,000 million units. Costs fell as well. One hundred thousand units initially cost $20; by war’s end the price had fallen to less than a dollar. Penicillin proved effective in treating a host of ailments and preventing infection, but its greatest...

War and Medicine

War and Medicine   Reference library

Dale Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...hospitals would operate as teaching hospitals with a medical school faculty in charge of medical care and a dean’s committee overseeing each institution. It was a bold move that would forever change the face of the nation’s health care. Doctors were paid part time, often 80 percent by the government and part time by the medical school (sometimes to greater than 100 percent of a federal approved salary), radically expanding the medical school faculty, especially in medical subspecialties. VA-supported faculty members headed most of the subspecialty training...

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