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Part 20 claim

Subject: Law

A claim other than a claim by the claimant against the defendant. It includes (1) a counterclaim by the defendant against the claimant; (2) a counterclaim by the defendant against a third ...

Counseling and Communication Skills in Sport and Performance Psychology

Counseling and Communication Skills in Sport and Performance Psychology   Reference library

Jack Watson, Robert Hilliard, and William Way

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...organizations joined together to create a consensus-based definition that would be appropriate for all counseling professionals and organizations to use with their specific external constituencies ( Kaplan, Tarvydas, & Gladding, 2014 ). This meeting resulted in the creation of “20/20: A Vision for the Future of Counseling” and the consensus definition for the term counseling . Accordingly, the term counseling was defined as “a professional relationship that empowers diverse individuals, families, and groups to accomplish mental health, wellness, education,...

Surgical Performance from a Psychological Perspective

Surgical Performance from a Psychological Perspective   Reference library

Aidan Moran, Nick Sevdalis, and Lauren Wallace

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...speculated that “sensation and imagination are due to the activity of the same centres in the cortex” (p. 720). Second, simulation theory proposes that the motor system is part of a cognitive network that includes other psychological activities such as imagining actions, learning by observation, and attempting to understand the behavior of other people. Third, Jeannerod ( 2001 ) claimed that actions involve a covert stage during which they are prepared or simulated mentally. This covert stage involves “a representation of the future, which includes the...

Attentional Processes in Sport and Performance

Attentional Processes in Sport and Performance   Reference library

Aidan Moran and John Toner

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...see Kaufman, Glass, & Pineau, 2018 ; Noetel et al., 2017 ) and enhance the likelihood of flow experiences. To illustrate the former claim, Haase et al. ( 2015 ) reported that a 7-week (two full-day sessions and six weekly, 90-minute sessions) MT intervention helped elite athletes to increase their sensitivity to bodily signals—which may lower trait anxiety and improve their mental resilience. To illustrate the latter claim, five studies included in the systematic review by Noetel et al. ( 2017 ) reported a significant positive effect of mindfulness on...

Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Anxiety

Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Anxiety   Reference library

Steven J. Petruzzello

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...before any firm conclusions can be drawn and certainly before any recommendations about minimal exercise intensity levels can be made. As for a minimum duration of exercise, Petruzzello et al. ( 1991 ) noted that exercise durations of less than 20 minutes were as effective as durations of greater than 20 minutes for reducing anxiety. The PAGAC report ( 2008 ) essentially concluded the same thing—minimal and optimal exercise durations or intensities for anxiety reduction remain unknown. Thus research at this point shows that the anxiety-reducing effect...

Sport Psychology Considerations in Intercollegiate Athletics in the United States

Sport Psychology Considerations in Intercollegiate Athletics in the United States   Reference library

Christopher M. Bader and Scott B. Martin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
9,621 words
Illustration(s):
3

...in compliance with NCAA rules regarding the number of allowable coaches, the time spent in these sessions must be included in the weekly allotment of hours for practice and team meetings (i.e., 4 hours daily or 20 hours per week). General support services such as advisement, personal counseling, career counseling, and tutoring are exempt from the 20 hour per week regulation (see NCAA, 2015 ). Thus, to reduce the risk of rule violations, SPCs should regularly interact with individuals in the athletic department such as the compliance officers, who can help...

Research Methods in Sport and Exercise Psychology

Research Methods in Sport and Exercise Psychology   Reference library

Sicong Liu and Gershon Tenenbaum

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...papers . Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Carron, A. V. , Bray, S. R. , & Eys, M. A. (2002). Team cohesion and team success in sport. Journal of Sports Sciences, 20 (2), 119–126. Chen, M. J. , Fan, X. , & Moe, S. T. (2002). Criterion-related validity of the Borg ratings of perceived exertion scale in healthy individuals: A meta-analysis. Journal of Sports Sciences, 20 (11), 873–899. Cohen, J. , Cohen, P. , West, S. G. , & Aiken, L. S. (2003). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences (3rd ed.). Mahwah...

Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Cognition

Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Cognition   Reference library

Jennifer L. Etnier

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...training on cognitive function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials . American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry , 21 (11), 1086–1097. Hambrick, D. Z. (2014). Brain training doesn’t make you smarter: Scientists doubt claims from brain training companies. Retrieved from http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/brain-training-doesn-t-make-you-smarter . Hamer, M. , & Chida, Y. (2009). Physical activity and risk of neurodegenerative disease: A systematic review of prospective evidence. Psychological...

Multicultural Sport Psychology’s Consulting Role in the United States Activist-Athlete Movement

Multicultural Sport Psychology’s Consulting Role in the United States Activist-Athlete Movement   Reference library

Jessica L. David, Jesse A. Steinfeldt, I. S. Keino Miller, and Jacqueline E. Hyman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
8,701 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Gunn and Akiel Denkins. In July 2016 , Americans watched in terror as violence struck yet again. Over the course of three consecutive days, Alton Sterling ( Balko, 2016 ) and Philando Castile ( Furber & Perez-Pena, 2016 ) were gunned down by officers, while a shootout that claimed the lives of five officers in Dallas, Texas, followed the day after ( Fernandez, Perez-Pena, & Bromwich, 2016 ). This sequence of events seemed to have been enough for NBA star Carmelo Anthony to express his frustration through a social media posting on July 8, 2016 : NO more sitting...

Psychological Considerations for the Older Athlete

Psychological Considerations for the Older Athlete   Reference library

Bradley W. Young, Bettina Callary, and Scott Rathwell

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...that typically begin at 35 years of age, with many adults active in subsequent decades and into their 70s and 80s. With the proliferation of adult sport, some sport federations have chosen earlier debut ages for MAs (e.g., Masters swimming begins at age 25). Seniors athletes claim all the same characteristics as MAs; however, they typically compromise participants who are 55 years of age and older. In understanding psychological themes pertaining to adult athletes, it is important to bear in mind that most literature continues to refer to 35 years of age as...

Leadership Skills in Sport

Leadership Skills in Sport   Reference library

W. James Weese and P. Chelladurai

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...that these “traits” are actually personality aspects that can be developed and enriched and that they contribute to an important part of current leadership theory. While trait theorists pursued this line of thinking, researchers from Harvard University began to question the trait theory on the premise that only a few leaders seemed to fit the stereotype suggested by the trait theory of leadership. Bird ( 1940 ) analyzed 20 independent lists of leadership traits believed to separate leaders from their contemporaries. He found a consistent menu of traits...

Gender and Cultural Diversity in Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Gender and Cultural Diversity in Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology   Reference library

Diane L. Gill

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...those conclusions. Hyde ( 2005 ) reviewed 46 meta-analyses of the extensive literature on sex differences and concluded that results support the gender similarities hypothesis. That is, males and females are more alike than different on psychological variables, and overstated claims of gender differences cause harm and limit opportunities. Zell, Krizan, and Teeter ( 2015 ) used metasynthesis to evaluate the many meta-analyses on sex differences. They found that the vast majority of differences were small and constant across age, culture, and generations...

Emotional Self-Regulation in Sport and Performance

Emotional Self-Regulation in Sport and Performance   Reference library

Claudio Robazza and Montse C. Ruiz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
13,178 words
Illustration(s):
3

...the structure of state-like experiences (i.e., form, content, and intensity) that occur in a specific context (e.g., practice and competition) and time (e.g., during competition). Intensity is also a critical defining characteristic for emotion regulation. The IZOF model claims that there is an optimal level of intensity in which athletes may perform up to their potential. Based on the “in–out of the zone” notion, emotions need to be regulated when either below or above optimal intensity levels. The model assumes that both the content and the intensity...

Burnout in Sport and Performance

Burnout in Sport and Performance   Reference library

Robert C. Eklund and J. D. DeFreese

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...of athlete burnout ( Eklund & Cresswell, 2007 ), involves behavior without intent to act resulting from not feeling competent, not believing that effort will result in desired outcomes, or not inherently valuing an activity ( Ryan & Deci, 2000b ). Evidence supports SDT claims that autonomous behaviors supported by self-authored, or self-determined, motivational regulation are more adaptive, whereas behaviors governed by controlled motivational regulations and amotivation are less adaptive for motivational persistence, psychological health, and...

Motivation in Sport and Performance

Motivation in Sport and Performance   Reference library

Glyn C. Roberts, Christina G. L. Nerstad, and P. Nicolas Lemyre

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...predictors of individual goal orientation. The Re-introduction of Approach and Avoid Goals. A provocative theory challenging AGT has emerged from work on the hierarchical model of achievement motivation (e.g., Elliot, 1999 ; Elliot & Conroy, 2005 ). The hierarchical model claims to revise and extend AGT. The theory is based on the premise that approach and avoidance motivation are also important in considering achievement striving. Briefly, the hierarchical model of achievement motivation asserts that the dynamic states of involvement are influenced by...

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