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Part 20 claim

Subject: Law

A claim other than a claim by the claimant against the defendant. It includes (1) a counterclaim by the defendant against the claimant; (2) a counterclaim by the defendant against a third ...

Reparations

Reparations   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
8,300 words

...Restitution claims have sometimes been possible and successful. Satisfaction measures have not been used in any such settlements, yet an apology could be considered as such. Many governments expressed remorse at some point although not admitting any binding obligation to any reparation claims. Government programs for reparations alongside truth telling in transitional justice contexts have been created, for example, by Chile, Argentina, and South Africa. Claims in relation to the Holocaust have initiated and advanced many other claims for “making good.”...

Simon Wiesenthal

Simon Wiesenthal   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
2,417 words

...Roosevelt Institute). He was named an honorary citizen of many cities, including Vienna, Dallas, and Miami. In 2006 a street in central Vienna was renamed the Simon Wiesenthal Gasse. Some critics have claimed that Simon Wiesenthal magnified his role as a Nazi hunter. Isser Harel, the Israeli intelligence chief responsible for the abduction of Eichmann, claimed that the credit should go to the Mossad (Israeli intelligence). Serge Klarsfeld, a Paris lawyer, criticized Wiesenthal's alleged egocentrism. Nevertheless, Wiesenthal had more sense of mission than...

Reporters without Borders

Reporters without Borders   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,650 words

...2005. http://www.ambafrance-uk.org/Media-Reporters-without-borders-20.html . Aid Watch List of NGOs Studied in France . 2003. http://www.observatoire-humanitaire.org/index.htm . Barahona, Diana , and Jeb Sprague . “International Republican Institute Grants Uncovered.” CounterPunch , July 28, 2006. Becker Lee B. , Tudor Vlad , and Nancy Nusser . “ An Evaluation of Press Freedom Indicators. ” International Communication Gazette 69, no. 1 (2007): 5–28. Campbell, Duncan . “Bias Claim against Reporters’ Group.” Guardian , May 19, 2005. Carassava, Anthee...

Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights

Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
6,636 words

...and subject themselves to the “general will.” Nevertheless, the notion that the vulnerable have a claim against the state appears in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, as well as the French Constitution of 1791 . Later, Karl Marx argued that these liberal rights were in fact antithetical to the enjoyment of basic needs—they were, rather, part of the structure of the very state system that precluded such enjoyment. Economic rights became part of the modern welfare state in the late nineteenth century, when the Prussian prime minister ...

National Human Rights Institutions

National Human Rights Institutions   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
2,765 words

...commissions also provide mediation services for discrimination claims or have the authority to bring claims in court. Over eighty nations have established an office of ombudsman or a similar institution. These institutions generally conform to the nineteenth-century Swedish model in which an independent official acts, either on his or her own motion or after receiving a complaint, to investigate the basis of any claim against the government as to which other remedies have been exhausted. Such institutions may be known as an ombudsman, a parliamentary committee...

Ethnic Cleansing

Ethnic Cleansing   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,884 words

...Now. http://www.hrw.org/press/2002/10/easterncongo-bck.htm . Human Rights Watch. Claims in Conflict: Reversing Ethnic Cleansing in Northern Iraq. http://hrw.org/reports/2004/iraq0804/index.htm . Human Rights Watch. Q & A: Crisis in Darfur . http://hrw.org/english/docs/2004/05/05/darfur8536.htm . Jackson Preece, Jennifer . “ Ethnic Cleansing as an Instrument of Nation-State Creation: Changing State Practices and Evolving Legal Norms. ” Human Rights Quarterly 20, no. 4 (November 1998): 817–842. Ladas, Stephen P. The Exchange of Minorities:...

P.E.N.

P.E.N.   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
1,493 words

...as a prelude to total disarmament can assure the spiritual well-being of mankind. 3. Terrorism is to be condemned whether it includes state terrorism, individual terrorism, or terrorism that justifies itself as part of a struggle for liberation. Movements using terrorist methods annul the missions to which they are dedicated and lose all claims to legitimacy. 4. There can be no freedom without peace and no peace without freedom: the free development of the individual and of society is a condition for long-lasting peace. Only free men and women can live in...

Democracy and Right to Participation

Democracy and Right to Participation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
7,572 words

...American Declaration on the Rights and Duties of Man ( 1948 ) provides (in its Article 20) for the right of all persons having legal capacity to participate in the governments of their countries and to take part in popular elections. The legally binding American Convention on Human Rights, adopted in 1978 , contains a chapter on the right to participate in government. Its Article 23 reads: Every citizen shall enjoy the following rights and opportunities: 1. to take part in the conduct of public affairs, directly or through freely chosen representatives; 2. ...

Culture and Human Rights

Culture and Human Rights   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
7,551 words

...special hunting and usufruct laws; the funding of ethnic associations or multilingual ballots or special voting measures; or the protection of symbolic claims, such as religious holidays. Since the right to take part in cultural life includes not only access to culture but active participation in the decision-making process on cultural matters, the state should also ensure that individuals are free to take part in the general political process. States should, for example, ensure representation of different communities in relevant decision-making bodies, or at...

Slobodan Milošević

Slobodan Milošević   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,375 words

...with or convicted of these crimes because of the ongoing trial at the ICTY. The ideological rationale for Milošević's chauvinistic politics was provided in a memorandum (some seventy pages long) released by the Serbian Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1986 . That document claimed that Serbs had been left in an unjust position following the conclusion of World War II in 1945 and their very existence was in severe danger. It furthermore asserted that Serbs remained under constant threats from their neighbors and that the postwar federal system in...

Indo-Pak Massacres

Indo-Pak Massacres   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
6,672 words

...dominions of India and Pakistan were accompanied by large-scale violence. The epicenter of the violence was in the northwestern province of Punjab, through which part of the new international boundary line ran. There were killings, however, across North India. This area of the subcontinent had been disturbed since the Great Calcutta Killing a year earlier. The violence on that occasion had claimed four thousand lives. Indeed, it can be argued that what might be termed the partition-related violence commenced as early as August 1946 , continued sporadically...

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
7,975 words

...Parliament of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. “Human Rights Commission of Sri Lanka Act, No. 21 of 1996.” The Gazette of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka , August 23, 1996, Part II. http://www.hrcsl.lk/PFF/HRC%20Act.pdf . Prevention of Terrorism Act. The Gazette of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka , July 20, 1979, No. 48. http://www.tamilnation.org/srilankalaws/79pta.htm . Richardson, John . Paradise Poisoned: Learning about Conflict, Terrorism, and Development from Sri Lanka's Civil Wars . Colombo, Sri Lanka:...

Environment

Environment   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
7,842 words

...are not the appropriate bodies to make such decisions. On the other side of the argument, advocates of environmental human rights assert that the claims of individuals for the protection of their rights to clean air and drinking water, or for protection of biodiversity and the right to participate in environmental decisions, are appropriately considered to be “human rights” claims—every bit as much as are claims for freedom of speech, nondiscrimination, or safety from physical brutality. They assert that a healthy environment is necessary for society's...

Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
5,367 words

...Protestant Unionists only made up about 20 percent of the population of the entire island. Protestants therefore feared they would be engulfed by the Republic of Ireland. Ireland's constitution also defined the entire island as belonging to the Irish people. Article 2 stated that the territory of the Republic of Ireland was “the whole island of Ireland.” Article 3 echoed this claim of ownership by discussing “the pending reintegration of the national territory” (Constitution of Ireland). Unionists viewed these claims as demonstrations of the aggressive intent...

United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)

United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
5,894 words

...so that a primary emphasis on such rights weakens the claim that UNICEF is a “rights agency”? If these are secondary rights or not rights at all, then the argument that UNICEF is a rights agency because it helps fulfill the right to education, for example, will seem both self-serving and philosophically weak. It is particularly weak because it focuses on those rights that are most contested, and most easily conflated with mere service provision—exactly the paradigm of development that UNICEF claims to want to leave behind. Not everything UNICEF does is...

Pol Pot

Pol Pot   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
2,923 words

...which an estimated 1.5 to 2 million people, over 20 percent of Cambodia's estimated population in 1975 , were executed or died as a result of politically induced starvation and disease. An additional half a million Cambodians died in the civil war that preceded the Khmer Rouge victory in April 1975 , and an additional 100,000 to 200,000 died during the war that followed the Vietnamese invasion of Cambodia in December 1978 . From beginning to end, therefore, the revolutionary period in Cambodia claimed 2 to 3 million lives. Although Pol Pot unquestionably...

Chechnya

Chechnya   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
7,190 words

....] bibliography American Committee for Peace in the Caucasus. Ingushetia: Trends behind the Recent Violence: Interview with Eliza Musaeva and Tanya Lokshina . Interview conducted by Iva Savic, October 28, 2007. http://peaceinthecaucasus.org/PDF%20and%20Audio%20files/Eliza%20Musaeva%20and%20Tanya%20Lokshina%20Interview.html American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research. Catastrophe in Chechnya: Escaping the Quagmire . Transcript of conference held December 10, 2003. Amnesty International. Russia . ...

Oxfam

Oxfam   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,451 words

...NGOs of Adopting Rights-Based Approaches. ” Intrac Occasional Papers Series 41 (November 2005). Ljungman, Cecilia M. Applying a Rights-Based Approach to Development: Concepts and Principles . http:www.sed.manchester.ac.uk/research/events/conferences/documents/Winners%20and%Losers%20Papers/Ljungman.pdf . Offenheiser, Raymond C. , and Susan H. Holcombe . “ Challenges and Opportunities in Implementing a Rights-Based Approach to Development: An Oxfam America Perspective. ” Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 32, no. 2 (June 2003): 268–306. Oxfam...

Raphael Lemkin

Raphael Lemkin   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,363 words

...on the island of Malta for “war criminality.” In 1926 , he obtained his doctorate in law from Lvov University in Poland just as another incident claimed his attention. On 25 May 1926 , in Paris, Sholom Schwartzbart assassinated Symon Petlyura, the Ukrainian socialist politician and statesman and leader of the Ukrainian fight for independence from Soviet Russia. Brought to trial for his crime, Schwartzbart claimed in defense that he assassinated Petlyura to avenge the deaths of fifteen members of his family, including his parents, who had been murdered in a...

Cyprus from 1964

Cyprus from 1964   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
7,041 words

...the issues raised in the Loizidou case. The opening of the Green Line also meant that many thousands of Turkish Cypriots now had their first opportunity in decades to cross freely to the southern part of the island. However, unlike the Turkish Cypriot authorities that had expropriated Greek Cypriot properties, the Cypriot government had made no similar claim against Turkish Cypriot land. Instead, Turkish Cypriot properties owned by Turkish Cypriots who had left the areas under the control of the government of Cyprus had been placed under a form of...

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