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Part 20 claim

Subject: Law

A claim other than a claim by the claimant against the defendant. It includes (1) a counterclaim by the defendant against the claimant; (2) a counterclaim by the defendant against a third ...

Eritrea

Eritrea   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,374 words
Illustration(s):
2

...conflict, however, was with Ethiopia. In May 1998 , a border skirmish erupted into a full-scale war. Ostensibly, the war was fought over a few barren hectares of loosely defined border which Eritrea claims that Ethiopia had been encroaching on, and taxing its people. The war cost the lives of at least 50,000 people, and the displacement of 20 per cent of the Eritrean population. Already one of the world’s poorest countries, Eritrea was brought to ruin by the war, as the state could not fulfil fundamental needs such as education and basic medical...

Cameroon

Cameroon   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,242 words
Illustration(s):
2

...but he made little impression and Biya was returned for a fifth term with 71 per cent of the vote. The opposition claimed that they were victims of intimidation and fraud. The country benefited in 2006 from debt relief granted to the world’s poorest countries, but its economy continued to suffer from high levels of corruption. In 2006 , Nigeria accepted an International Court ruling that the Bakassi peninsula, rich in mineral resources, was part of Cameroon, which finally took over full control in 2013 . In 2008 a strike protesting against rising food prices...

Chad

Chad   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,290 words
Illustration(s):
2

...with Frolinat. This failed, not least because the rebellion was being funded by Libya. In 1982 , however, Hissène Habré , a northern leader, seized power, backed by the USA, Sudan, and Egypt, but opposed by Libya. This provoked a rebellion in the south and warfare that was to claim 40,000 victims. In 1990 , Habré’s former army head, Idriss Déby , launched the Mouvement patriotique du salut ( MPS ). With Libyan support, this rapidly ousted Habré and installed Déby as president. In 2016 , Habré was found guilty of crimes against humanity by an African-Un...

Gambia

Gambia   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,265 words
Illustration(s):
2

...by external events. In average years, tourism contributes around 20 per cent of GDP. In 2019 , after decades of discussion and delays, the Senegambia bridge, near Farfenni, was opened, the first road bridge across the Gambia River, greatly enhancing communications within the Gambia and also between the two sections of Senegal north and south of the Gambia. Contemporary politics Politically and geographically, the Gambia seems an anomalous country that one might expect to be part of Senegal. Its status derives from its history as a colony of the...

North Macedonia

North Macedonia   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,519 words
Illustration(s):
2

...cent of the work force. Since the financial crisis of 2008, unemployment has remained high, between 25 per cent and 35 per cent, but many people actually work in the black economy which accounts for anywhere between 20 per cent and 45 per cent of GDP. Agriculture also suffered in the early years but has recovered more strongly. Even as part of Yugoslavia, Macedonian agriculture depended largely on small private farms which produce most of the food as well as important cash crops such as tobacco. Tobacco remains an important crop since it supports around...

Armenia

Armenia   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,296 words
Illustration(s):
2

... 2008 election he was replaced by Kocharyan’s ally, Serzh Sargsyan , a result that triggered violent protests which resulted in eight deaths and the imprisonment of opposition leaders. The 2012 parliamentary elections were more peaceful, though still tainted by claims of fraud and vote-rigging. Sargsyan’s Republican Party won again, and the following year Sargsyan was re-elected as president. In an abrupt change of direction in 2013 , the government abandoned an association agreement with the EU in favour of joining a customs union (now...

Liberia

Liberia   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,304 words
Illustration(s):
2

...agencies and to restore basic amenities to the war-torn population. In 2009 she merged her Unity Party with two others. She was re-elected in 2011 and the Unity Party won a larger share of the vote. Winston Tubman , standing for the Congress for Democratic Change, claiming irregularities, boycotted the second round of the presidential election. In 2012 , at the International Criminal Court Charles Taylor became the first former head of state to be convicted of crimes against humanity. In 2014 and 2015 , the politics and administration of the...

Bangladesh

Bangladesh   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,899 words
Illustration(s):
2

...area, with the displacement of 17 million people. The other major natural hazard is cyclones. The funnel-shaped coastline regularly sucks in some of the world’s most violent storms. In 1991 a tidal surge over 7 metres high killed around 140,000 people. In 2009 cyclone Aila claimed hundreds of victims. The people Survival in these climatic extremes has made Bangladesh’s people remarkably resilient. As a group, they are also relatively homogenous, with a rich language and culture shared with the state of West Bengal in neighbouring India. Bangladesh means...

Iraq

Iraq   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,683 words
Illustration(s):
2

...of resources than al-Abadi expected. By the end of the year IS had been driven from all its bases in Iraq. The Kurds fought with the Iraqi army to liberate Mosul, but then lost territory, including the key city of Kirkuk, to Iraqi forces in the days that followed, weakening their claims for independence. In May 2018 elections, al-Abadi’s party came third, with the largest number of seats won by supporters of the nationalist, anti-US cleric, Muqtada al-Sadr. No one grouping gained control, and initially al-Sadr and al-Abadi agreed to work together to try to form...

Israel

Israel   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,720 words
Illustration(s):
2

...settlers, so he announced in early 2004 that Israel was going to withdraw completely from the area. At the same time, Sharon continued to promote the construction of Jewish settlements on the West Bank, while accelerating the construction of the wall dividing the territories claimed by Israel from the rest of the West Bank. The withdrawal of Israeli settlers and troops from Gaza was completed in August 2005 , though not without splitting Likud. Sharon founded his own party, Kadima, which attracted leading members of Likud and Labour, and called early elections...

China

China   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,385 words
Illustration(s):
2

...exploitation in Angola or nuclear power stations in Britain, and found this one way of deflecting criticism about human rights abuses in Tibet and Xinjiang, for example. Closer to home, he has become more belligerent, particularly in the South China Sea, where China’s very active claims on a number of islands geographically quite distant from China has soured relations with neighbours, particularly Vietnam and the Philippines. It also damaged relations with the USA both under Obama and Trump. Xi has used what influence he has to constrain Kim Jong Un’s nuclear...

West Africa

West Africa: c. 2000 BCE - 2011  

Reference type:
Timeline
Current Version:
2012

...to China Nkrumah, Kwame ( c. 1909–1972) Who's Who in the Twentieth Century 1 1960s 20th century Politics Africa 1967 1967 The Ibo of eastern Nigeria claim independence for their region – as the republic of Biafra Biafra A Dictionary of World History 2 1960s 20th century Politics Protest and rebellion Africa Germany 1970 1970 The breakaway province of Biafra surrenders after three years of devastating civil war in Nigeria Biafra A Dictionary of World History 2 1970s 20th century War Africa Germany 1974 1974 Portuguese Guinea becomes independent as...

Germany

Germany: c. 35,000 years ago - 2005  

Reference type:
Timeline
Current Version:
2012

...of Political Biography 1 rev 1960s 20th century Politics 1965 1965 Footballer Franz Beckenbauer plays his first international for West Germany Beckenbauer, Franz (1945– ) Who's Who in the Twentieth Century 1 1960s 20th century Sports and games Society 1965 1965 German performance artist Joseph Beuys walks round a gallery demonstrating How to Explain Pictures to a Dead Hare Beuys, Joseph (12 May 1921) The Oxford Dictionary of Art and Artists 4 1960s 20th century Arts 1967 1967 The Ibo of eastern Nigeria claim independence for their region – as the...

Russia

Russia: c. 23,000 years ago - 2008  

Reference type:
Timeline
Current Version:
2012

...Europe Wars since 1900 1946 1946 Sergei Eisenstein completes Part 2 of his intended epic film trilogy Ivan the Terrible Eisenstein, Sergei Mikhailovich (1898–1948) Who's Who in the Twentieth Century 1 1940s 20th century Performing arts Film Europe 1948 1948 June 24 - the Soviet Union imposes a blockade on Berlin by denying the other powers access through the land corridor to the city Berlin Blockade and Airlift (1948–1949) The Oxford Companion to United States History 1 1940s Second World War 20th century Politics Communism War Cold war Europe Germany Wars...

East Africa

East Africa: c. 15 million years ago - 2011  

Reference type:
Timeline
Current Version:
2012

...government Congo, Republic of A Dictionary of World History 2 1990s 20th century War Africa Central Africa 1998 1998 Bitter and devastating warfare breaks out again between Eritrea and Ethiopia as the result of a border dispute Eritrea A Dictionary of World History 2 1990s 20th century War Africa Ethiopia 1998 1998 Neighbouring African nations, with an interest in Congo's mineral wealth, take part on both sides in a developing civil war Congo, Republic of A Dictionary of World History 2 1990s 20th century War Africa Central Africa 1998 1998 224 deaths in...

East Asia

East Asia: c. 500,000 years ago - 2011  

Reference type:
Timeline
Current Version:
2012

...World History 3 1940s Second World War 20th century War Asia Southeast Asia Wars since 1900 1945 1945 March 9 - napalm, used to bomb a crowded part of Tokyo, creates a firestorm in which 80,000 die napalm The Oxford Companion to Military History 1 1940s Second World War 20th century War Weapons Asia Japan Wars since 1900 1945 1945 March 20 - William Slim drives the Japanese from Mandalay and moves on south to take Rangoon Mandalay, battle of The Oxford Companion to World War II 1 1940s Second World War 20th century War Asia Southeast Asia Wars since...

North America

North America: c. 30,000 years ago - 2011  

Reference type:
Timeline
Current Version:
2012

...Hawaii Via Satellite Encyclopedia of Popular Music 4 1970s 20th century Performing arts Music United States 1973 1973 In the Calder case, the Supreme Court of Canada recognizes Aboriginal title to land Aboriginal land claims, northern Canada The Oxford Companion to Canadian History 1 1970s 20th century Politics Canada 1973 1973 A Little Night Music , with lyrics and music by Stephen Sondheim, has its premiere in New York Little Night Music, A (1973) The Oxford Companion to American Theatre 3 1970s 20th century Performing arts Theatre United States 1973 1973...

Palestine and Israel

Palestine and Israel: c. 90,000 years ago - 2009  

Reference type:
Timeline
Current Version:
2012

...in East Jerusalem, then part of Jordan Palestine Liberation Organization World Encyclopedia 1 1960s 20th century Politics Protest and rebellion Jerusalem Egypt Asia West Asia 1967 1967 A pre-emptive air strike by Israel destroys almost all Egypt's aircraft and launches the Six-Day War Six Day War A Dictionary of Contemporary World History 3 1960s 20th century War Africa North Africa Egypt Asia West Asia 1967 1967 Israel captures the Gaza Strip and Sinai peninsula from Egypt Six Day War A Dictionary of Contemporary World History 3 1960s 20th century War Asia West...

Japan

Japan: c. 8000 BCE - 2011  

Reference type:
Timeline
Current Version:
2012

...U.S. Military 1 1940s Second World War 20th century War Asia East Asia Wars since 1900 1945 1945 March 9 - napalm, used to bomb a crowded part of Tokyo, creates a firestorm in which 80,000 die napalm The Oxford Companion to Military History 1 1940s Second World War 20th century War Weapons Asia East Asia Wars since 1900 1945 1945 April 5 - US troops land on the island of Okinawa, only 300 miles from the main islands of Japan Okinawa, Battle of The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military 1 1940s Second World War 20th century War Battles Asia East Asia...

United States

United States: c. 30,000 years ago - 2011  

Reference type:
Timeline
Current Version:
2012

...6 1990s 20th century Literature American literature Literature in English Poetry North America 1993 1993 US author Annie Proulx wins major awards with her second novel, The Shipping News Proulx, E. Annie (1935– ) The Concise Oxford Companion to English Literature 3 1990s 20th century Literature American literature Literature in English Fiction North America 1993 1993 Millennium Approaches , the first part of Tony Kushner's Angels in America , is premiered in London Kushner, Tony (1956– ) The Oxford Encyclopedia of Theatre and Performance 1 1990s 20th...

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