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Part 20 claim

Subject: Law

A claim other than a claim by the claimant against the defendant. It includes (1) a counterclaim by the defendant against the claimant; (2) a counterclaim by the defendant against a third ...

British Antarctic Territory

British Antarctic Territory   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
85 words

...Antarctic Territory British colony in Antarctica , comprising the mainland and islands within a triangular area bounded by latitude 60°S and longitudes 20° and 80°W. It includes the South Shetland Islands, South Orkney Islands, and Graham Land. Formerly part of the Falkland Islands , the territory became a British Crown colony in 1962 , although Argentina and Chile claim parts of it. There are no permanent settlements, but teams of scientists occupy meteorological stations and other establishments of the British Antarctic Survey. Area: 1,725,000sq km...

Lesotho

Lesotho   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
610 words
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4

...state of emergency was declared in that year. In 2012 the LCD was ousted by a coalition headed by Motsoahae Thomas Thabane 's All Basotho Convention. He suspended parliament in June 2014 over political infighting and two months later fled the country briefly, claiming that there had been a military coup. New elections were called in 2015 , which he lost to a coalition led by the LCD, under Pakalitha Mosisili , who had already been prime minster from 1998 to 2012 . Economy Lesotho is a ‘low-income’ developing country. It lacks natural...

Brazil

Brazil   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
1,284 words
Illustration(s):
4

...began to compete in the early 20th century. Brazil became a republic in 1889 after a bloodless revolution. Until 1930 , the country experienced very strong economic expansion and prospered, but social unrest in 1930 resulted in a major revolt. President Getúlio Vargas seized power and established a strong corporate state based on fascist Italy, although Brazil entered World War 2 on the side of the Allies. In 1945 Vargas was forced to resign, but rampant inflation led to his return to power ( 1950-54 ). As part of the development of the interior,...

Guinea

Guinea   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
759 words
Illustration(s):
4

...established the Military Committee for National Recovery (CMRN). Conté improved relations with the West and introduced free enterprise policies. Politics Civil unrest forced the introduction of a multiparty system in 1992 . Elections in 1993 confirmed Conté as president, amid claims of voting fraud. In February 1996 , Conté foiled an attempted military coup. He was re-elected in 1998 . By 2000 , Guinea was home to about 500,000 refugees from the wars in neighbouring Sierra Leone and Liberia. In 2000 , rebel incursions from these countries killed more...

Venezuela

Venezuela   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
Feb 2014
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
797 words
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4

...became part of Gran Colombia, a republic led by Simón Bolívar that also included Colombia, Ecuador and Panama. The country became fully independent in 1821 , after the Venezuelans had defeated the Spanish in a battle at Carabobo, near Valencia. Venezuela broke away from Gran Colombia in 1829 and in 1830 a new constitution was drafted. The country's first president was General José Antonio Páez, one of the leaders of Venezuela's independence movement. Politics The development of Venezuela in the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century was...

Canada

Canada   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

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Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
1,480 words
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4

..., but their settlements were short lived. John Cabot rediscovered the Canadian coast in 1497 , and a race between France and Britain for the riches in this new land began. France gained an initial advantage when Jacques Cartier discovered the St Lawrence River in 1534 and claimed Canada for France. The French established the first European settlement in 1605 and founded Québec in 1608 . The empire was extended by explorers such as La Salle . French settlement in the W was generally much slower than English development on the Atlantic coast. The ...

Nicaragua

Nicaragua   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

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Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
675 words
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4

...weather is found in the Central Highlands. The wettest part is the Mosquito Coast, with 4,200mm [165in] of rain. History The explorer Christopher Columbus reached Nicaragua in 1502 and claimed the land for Spain. c. 100,000 Native Americans were killed by Spanish colonialism and imported disease. By 1518 Nicaragua had become part of the Spanish Captaincy-General of Guatemala, but in the 17th century Britain secured control of the Caribbean coast. In 1821 Nicaragua gained independence, then formed part of the Central American Federation from 1825 to 1838...

Namibia

Namibia   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
810 words
Illustration(s):
4

...is a central plateau, bordered by a rugged spine of mountains stretching n-s. e Namibia contains part of the Kalahari , a semi-desert area which extends into Botswana. The Orange River forms Namibia's S border, while the Cunene and Cubango rivers form parts of the N borders. Climate Namibia has a warm and largely arid climate. Daily temperatures range from about 24°C [75°F] in January to 20°C [68°F] in July. Annual rainfall ranges from about 500mm [20in] in northern areas to between 25 and 150mm [1-6in] in the S. Most of the rain falls in summer....

Slovak Republic

Slovak Republic   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
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Length:
753 words
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4

...Temperatures can range from -3°C [27°F] in January to 20°C [68°F] in July. Kosice has an average annual rainfall of 600mm [24in]. The mountains have a more extreme climate, with snow or rain throughout the year. History Slavic peoples settled in the region in the 5th and 6th centuries ad . In the 9th century the area formed part of the Empire of Moravia . Conquered by the Magyars in the 10th century, Hungary dominated the region for nearly 900 years. At the end of the 11th century, it became part of the Kingdom of Hungary. In the 16th century the...

Japan

Japan   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
Feb 2014
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
1,710 words
Illustration(s):
4

...in Korea. Thus Japan was established as a world power. In World War 1 Japan supported the Allies. After the war, in 1920 , Japan became a founding member of the League of Nations. During the 1920s, Japan built its economy, interrupted only by an earthquake ( 1923 ) that claimed 123,000 lives and devastated Tokyo and Yokohama. Militarists began to dominate Japanese politics. The army seized Manchuria in 1931 and made it a puppet state called Manchukuo , then extended Japanese influence into other parts of N China. In 1933 , after the League of...

Eritrea

Eritrea   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,374 words
Illustration(s):
2

...conflict, however, was with Ethiopia. In May 1998 , a border skirmish erupted into a full-scale war. Ostensibly, the war was fought over a few barren hectares of loosely defined border which Eritrea claims that Ethiopia had been encroaching on, and taxing its people. The war cost the lives of at least 50,000 people, and the displacement of 20 per cent of the Eritrean population. Already one of the world’s poorest countries, Eritrea was brought to ruin by the war, as the state could not fulfil fundamental needs such as education and basic medical...

Cameroon

Cameroon   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,242 words
Illustration(s):
2

...but he made little impression and Biya was returned for a fifth term with 71 per cent of the vote. The opposition claimed that they were victims of intimidation and fraud. The country benefited in 2006 from debt relief granted to the world’s poorest countries, but its economy continued to suffer from high levels of corruption. In 2006 , Nigeria accepted an International Court ruling that the Bakassi peninsula, rich in mineral resources, was part of Cameroon, which finally took over full control in 2013 . In 2008 a strike protesting against rising food prices...

Chad

Chad   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,290 words
Illustration(s):
2

...with Frolinat. This failed, not least because the rebellion was being funded by Libya. In 1982 , however, Hissène Habré , a northern leader, seized power, backed by the USA, Sudan, and Egypt, but opposed by Libya. This provoked a rebellion in the south and warfare that was to claim 40,000 victims. In 1990 , Habré’s former army head, Idriss Déby , launched the Mouvement patriotique du salut ( MPS ). With Libyan support, this rapidly ousted Habré and installed Déby as president. In 2016 , Habré was found guilty of crimes against humanity by an African-Un...

Gambia

Gambia   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,265 words
Illustration(s):
2

...by external events. In average years, tourism contributes around 20 per cent of GDP. In 2019 , after decades of discussion and delays, the Senegambia bridge, near Farfenni, was opened, the first road bridge across the Gambia River, greatly enhancing communications within the Gambia and also between the two sections of Senegal north and south of the Gambia. Contemporary politics Politically and geographically, the Gambia seems an anomalous country that one might expect to be part of Senegal. Its status derives from its history as a colony of the...

North Macedonia

North Macedonia   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,519 words
Illustration(s):
2

...cent of the work force. Since the financial crisis of 2008, unemployment has remained high, between 25 per cent and 35 per cent, but many people actually work in the black economy which accounts for anywhere between 20 per cent and 45 per cent of GDP. Agriculture also suffered in the early years but has recovered more strongly. Even as part of Yugoslavia, Macedonian agriculture depended largely on small private farms which produce most of the food as well as important cash crops such as tobacco. Tobacco remains an important crop since it supports around...

Armenia

Armenia   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,296 words
Illustration(s):
2

... 2008 election he was replaced by Kocharyan’s ally, Serzh Sargsyan , a result that triggered violent protests which resulted in eight deaths and the imprisonment of opposition leaders. The 2012 parliamentary elections were more peaceful, though still tainted by claims of fraud and vote-rigging. Sargsyan’s Republican Party won again, and the following year Sargsyan was re-elected as president. In an abrupt change of direction in 2013 , the government abandoned an association agreement with the EU in favour of joining a customs union (now...

Liberia

Liberia   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,304 words
Illustration(s):
2

...agencies and to restore basic amenities to the war-torn population. In 2009 she merged her Unity Party with two others. She was re-elected in 2011 and the Unity Party won a larger share of the vote. Winston Tubman , standing for the Congress for Democratic Change, claiming irregularities, boycotted the second round of the presidential election. In 2012 , at the International Criminal Court Charles Taylor became the first former head of state to be convicted of crimes against humanity. In 2014 and 2015 , the politics and administration of the...

Bangladesh

Bangladesh   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,899 words
Illustration(s):
2

...area, with the displacement of 17 million people. The other major natural hazard is cyclones. The funnel-shaped coastline regularly sucks in some of the world’s most violent storms. In 1991 a tidal surge over 7 metres high killed around 140,000 people. In 2009 cyclone Aila claimed hundreds of victims. The people Survival in these climatic extremes has made Bangladesh’s people remarkably resilient. As a group, they are also relatively homogenous, with a rich language and culture shared with the state of West Bengal in neighbouring India. Bangladesh means...

Iraq

Iraq   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,683 words
Illustration(s):
2

...of resources than al-Abadi expected. By the end of the year IS had been driven from all its bases in Iraq. The Kurds fought with the Iraqi army to liberate Mosul, but then lost territory, including the key city of Kirkuk, to Iraqi forces in the days that followed, weakening their claims for independence. In May 2018 elections, al-Abadi’s party came third, with the largest number of seats won by supporters of the nationalist, anti-US cleric, Muqtada al-Sadr. No one grouping gained control, and initially al-Sadr and al-Abadi agreed to work together to try to form...

Israel

Israel   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,720 words
Illustration(s):
2

...settlers, so he announced in early 2004 that Israel was going to withdraw completely from the area. At the same time, Sharon continued to promote the construction of Jewish settlements on the West Bank, while accelerating the construction of the wall dividing the territories claimed by Israel from the rest of the West Bank. The withdrawal of Israeli settlers and troops from Gaza was completed in August 2005 , though not without splitting Likud. Sharon founded his own party, Kadima, which attracted leading members of Likud and Labour, and called early elections...

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