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Part 20 claim

Subject: Law

A claim other than a claim by the claimant against the defendant. It includes (1) a counterclaim by the defendant against the claimant; (2) a counterclaim by the defendant against a third ...

grouse

grouse   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...other similar game bird) is being roasted, a buttered toast should be introduced under the bird in the dripping pan about ten minutes before roasting is complete. Noting that there are few occasions when it is appropriate to bring the contents of the dripping pan to table, she claims not only that this is one, but that the toast ‘will afford a superior relish even to the birds...

Chariot (barley)

Chariot (barley)   Reference library

Colin J. West

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...beta- glucans . Protein modification was moderate, giving low soluble protein in worts. PBI were so confident about the quality of this new variety in 1992 that they claimed in their product literature that pubs would soon be named for it. While this was perhaps an overstatement, Chariot was certainly a major step along the quality and yield improvement route in malting barleys at the end of the 20th century. In recognition of Chariot becoming outclassed for agronomic yield by newer varieties, growers reduced its area until it was no longer being grown by 2003,...

Falernian

Falernian   Reference library

Jeremy Paterson

The Oxford Companion to Wine (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...edge of the plain. Recent archaeological survey has revealed numerous Roman farms in this region and part of a vineyard of Roman date has been excavated. The vines were trained up trees and also on trellises on poles of willow. Falernian was a white wine of at least two types, one relatively dry, the other sweeter. As with other Roman fine wines such as caecuban and massic , it was normal to age it considerably. It was considered drinkable between 10 and 20 years. Its distinctive colour, deep amber, was probably the result of maderization , which may also...

Haná (barley)

Haná (barley)   Reference library

Horst Dornbusch

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...as “Old-Haná agroecotype” and sometimes referred to by its German name of “Hanna,” this heirloom barley originates from the Haná Valley, a fertile agricultural plain in Moravia, which in the 19th century was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and is now part of the Czech Republic. See austro-hungarian empire and czech republic . Haná malt’s early claim to fame was that it made up the mash of the first-ever golden-blond Pilsner lager, which was created in the fall of 1842 by Bavarian brewmaster Josef Groll at the Měšťanský Pivovar (Burgher Brewery) of Plzeň...

Jurançon

Jurançon   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Wine (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...and valuing specific favoured vineyard sites. Locals claim this as France’s first attempt at vineyard classification , just as they claim the drop of Jurançon with which the infant Henri IV’s lips were rubbed at his baptism in 1553 was responsible for most of his subsequent achievements. The Dutch were great enthusiasts for this wine and there was also a flourishing export trade across the Atlantic until phylloxera almost destroyed the wine. Jurançon’s reputation was further advanced in the early 20th century by the enthusiasm of the French writer...

Yquem, Château d’

Yquem, Château d’   Reference library

Edmund Penning-Rowsell and Jancis Robinson

The Oxford Companion to Wine (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...d’ , the greatest wine of sauternes and, according to the famous 1855 classification , of the entire bordeaux region. It is sweet, golden, and apparently almost immortal. The origin of the name is obscure, although the Germanic aig-helm (meaning ‘to have a helmet’) is claimed. Probably the first vineyard-owning family were the Sauvages, who, from being tenants, bought the estate in 1711 . It was acquired by the Lur Saluces family in 1785 , when the last Sauvage d’Yquem married Comte Louis-Amadée de Lur Saluces. By then the wine was very well known,...

Serbia

Serbia   Reference library

Caroline Gilby

The Oxford Companion to Wine (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...As in the rest of the Balkan region, phylloxera was devastating and the early 20th century saw the development of growers’ co-operatives . Both world wars, collectivization when Serbia was part of yugoslavia , then the brutal wars of independence after the break-up of Yugoslavia, all seriously affected wine production, although the 21st century has seen considerable revival. Serbia has been slow to develop a reliable vineyard register. The Serbian statistical office claimed 56,343 ha/138,379 acres of vineyard in 2011 although the Ministry of Agriculture...

mussel

mussel   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...of myticulture, as the culture of mussels is called, in France in the 13th century raised the consumption of mussels to a new plane; and the development in Spain of a new method of rearing mussels on ropes suspended from rafts has transformed the industry in the latter part of the 20th century. Mussels grow in clusters, attaching themselves by means of a ‘byssus’ (numerous threads, produced by the mussel itself) to rocks or other supports such as jetties or gravel beaches. They can also attach themselves to the hulls of ships, and it is by this means that...

cook

cook   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
1,268 words

...on occasion showed themselves prepared to buckle down to work when driven by enthusiasm. At least, so it was claimed of the Prince de Dombes in 1740, ‘one of the best cooks in France,’ asserted a hungry author in his dedication of Le Cuisinier Gascon . More usually, however, enthusiasm stopped short at tying on an apron, the menfolk diverting themselves rather with collecting recipes (Kenelm Digby, John Evelyn), writing cookery books (even while claiming the author—and the audience—is female), or generally pontificating in the manner of Brillat-Savarin. But in...

Italian cookery books

Italian cookery books   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
1,166 words

...Italian tastes and ingredients. Leonardi was strong on pasta and could claim to be the first cookery author to record the combination of pasta and tomato which is so characteristic of Naples. His recipe for tomato sauce ( sugo di pomodoro ), as Anne Willan observes, is exactly the same as the recipe still in use. Naples and Neapolitan cookery, with dialect terms, were featured again by cavalcanti ( 1837 ), who can be regarded as the first regional cookery writer of Italy. In the latter part of the 19th century there was one outstanding author, Pellegrino...

Croatia

Croatia   Reference library

Edi Maletić and Gilby Caroline

The Oxford Companion to Wine (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
1,206 words

...It is claimed that the UNESCO-listed Stari Grad plain on the island of Hvar is the oldest continuously cultivated viticultural site in the world, dating back to the fourth century bc , with its original layout of geometric parcels, or chora , divided by stone walls. Grape growing increased in importance and became more organized under roman occupation. The land was part of the Ottoman empire from the 15th century and was subsequently part of the Habsburg empire when grape growing flourished until the arrival of phylloxera . Under 20th-century...

Oreos

Oreos   Reference library

Emily Hilliard

The Oxford Companion to Sugar and Sweets

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...word for gold (or), and in fact the cookie’s name was printed in gold lettering on the original package. Others, less convincingly, suggest that the name comes from the Greek oros , meaning “mountain,” whose root is “ ore- ”—the claim being that these flat cookies were originally shaped into mounds. Although the “Oreo” part of the name has remained the same, the tagline has evolved. In 1921 the Oreo Biscuit became the Oreo Sandwich. Then, in 1948 , it was changed to Oreo Crème Sandwich; in 1974 it morphed again into Oreo Chocolate Sandwich, which it...

Lox

Lox   Reference library

Alexandra Ilyashov

Savoring Gotham: A Food Lover’s Companion to New York City

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...salt-cured fish passé, ushering in the popularity of smoked salmon. The advent of the bagel–lox–cream cheese trifecta dates back to the 1930s on the Lower East Side, according to Mark Russ Federman of the lineage: “At one time, every appetizing-store owner in the neighborhood claimed to be the originator of this creation… . Before the lox, cream cheese, and bagel troika came into being, smoked fish was traditionally eaten with butter schmeared on thick slabs of dark pumpernickel or rye bread.” His family’s business was established in 1914 . See bagels ; ...

baba

baba   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...Precious pastrycooks declared it needed to rest on an eiderdown before it went in the oven, after which baking took place in an atmosphere of maternity. Men were forbidden to enter the kitchen and no one was allowed to speak above a whisper. On the other hand, there are rival claims from the Ukraine. Savella Stechishin ( 1979 ), writing in an attractive and undogmatic manner, says that baba or babka is one of the most distinctive of all Ukrainian breads, traditionally served at Easter. The name ‘baba’ is the colloquial Ukrainian word for woman or grandma,...

San Luis Obispo

San Luis Obispo   Reference library

Jake Hancock and Alex Maltman

The Oxford Companion to Wine (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Valley AVA Directly south of the coastal town of San Luis Obispo, Edna Valley won quick fame for its Chardonnays, beginning in the mid 1970s. Edna Valley Vineyards, now part of E. & J. gallo , was the pioneer, and the principal wine company is Niven Family Wine Estates (the Nivens founded Edna Valley Vineyards), producer of Baileyana, Tangent, Zocker, and other labels. The AVA also claims Alban Vineyards, established by rhône ranger John Alban whose finest Syrahs, Grenaches, and Viogniers are sold strictly via mailing list. Gewürztraminer has also done...

bottling

bottling   Reference library

Jancis Robinson, Harding Julia, and Dick Barry

The Oxford Companion to Wine (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...high-volume wines with a limited shelf life in bottle of around nine months, there is the advantage that the wine is likely to reach the retailers’ shelves much sooner after bottling than wine bottled at source. See bottling information for the significance of various bottling claims on the label. As with any mechanical process, many things can go wrong during the bottling operation. The bottled wine itself can develop problems which were not previously apparent. Most result from high levels of dissolved oxygen ( see bottle sickness ), incomplete ...

American cookbooks

American cookbooks   Reference library

Janice Longone

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
2,639 words

...in the last quarter of the 20th century introduced still more cuisines to America, mainly Asian and Latin American, and the cookbooks followed. The First and Second World Wars, the Depression, and Prohibition ( 1920–33 ) all influenced the cookbooks of the first half of the 20th century. The period is best noted, however, for the appearance of the American classic The Joy of Cooking ( 1931 ) by Irma rombauer ; see Jan Longone ( 1996 a ), also Janice B. and Daniel T. Longone ( 1984 ) . In the last half of the 20th century, the market for cookbooks...

ageing

ageing   Reference library

Helen Bettinson, Jancis Robinson, Patrick Williams, and Véronique Cheynier

The Oxford Companion to Wine (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
2,757 words

...Whites Almost all wine retailing at under £10/$20: 1–2 Chablis: 3–15 Côte d’Or white burgundy: 3–10 Other wines based on Chardonnay: 2–6 Wines based on Riesling: 3–20 Wines based on Sauvignon Blanc: 1–5 Wines based on Viognier: 1–3 Wines based on Chenin Blanc: 3–15 Botrytized sweet wines: 5–35 Reds Almost all wine retailing at under £10/$20: 1–3 (although some particularly good red Côtes du Rhône and old-vine Spaniards can provide exceptions) Bordeaux, Madiran: 5–25 Burgundy: 4–20 Northern Rhône: 4–15 (Hermitage longer) Southern Rhône:...

aphrodisiacs

aphrodisiacs   Reference library

Miriam Kasin Hospodar

The Oxford Companion to Sugar and Sweets

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
1,629 words
Illustration(s):
1

...boxed and valentine’s day . Many sweet foods have long been considered to have aphrodisiac properties. Some of the most ancient aphrodisiacs recorded are from India. All but one of the Kama Sutra ’s aphrodisiac recipes contain sugar, milk, or honey. The text makes extravagant claims for a sweet-potato cookie: Crush sweet potatoes in cow’s milk, together with swayamgupta seeds [ Mukunia pruriens ], sugar, honey and clarified butter. Use it to make biscuits with wheat flour…. By constantly eating these biscuits, one’s sperm acquires such force that it is...

fortified wine

fortified wine   Reference library

Stuart Pigott

The Oxford Companion to Sugar and Sweets

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
1,405 words

...became stronger after the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1814 , which means that Madeira is actually a Portuguese-American wine, rather than a British one, as is often claimed. Port Fortification also appears to have come to the Douro Valley of Portugal during the first half of the eighteenth century. By 1800 the new sweet red port wines, typically with an alcohol content of 18 to 20 percent and 8 to10 percent grape sweetness, gradually replaced the region’s previous style of more-or-less dry, full-bodied red in the main export market to England. Most of...

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