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Part 20 claim

Subject: Law

A claim other than a claim by the claimant against the defendant. It includes (1) a counterclaim by the defendant against the claimant; (2) a counterclaim by the defendant against a third ...

onions

onions   Quick reference

A Dictionary of English Folklore

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...tobacconists and onion sellers were largely immune. The same belief leads some people to think it unlucky or dangerous to keep a cut, raw onion, for fear it might attract illness into the house from the outside air; any unused part, and even the peelings, must be thrown out at once. An idea common among schoolchildren in the 19th and 20th centuries was that if you rubbed raw onion on to your palm, the pain of being caned on the hand would be much lessened, or, even better, the cane would split in half (cf. hair , animal). Love divinations involving onions...

revival

revival   Quick reference

A Dictionary of English Folklore

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...is at best ambiguous and open to further debate. Victorian and Edwardian reformers were expert in the art of ‘revivals’ which, while claiming to be genuinely traditional, were either invented or changed so radically as to retain only a tenuous connection with the original source ( see Merrie England ), but which helped to create a generalized notion of a ‘national’ traditional culture belonging to all. At the end of the 20th century, the same processes appeared to be still in force. See also DANCE , FAKELORE , REGIONAL FOLKLORE , SONG REVIVAL , TOURIST...

Colum Cille

Colum Cille   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Celtic Mythology

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...Ireland. The Danes stole them in 1127 but later restored them, after which they were lost. Colum Cille's earliest biographer was St Adamnán , who wrote a century after his subject's death. In the 20th century Colum Cille's career has been the subject of scholarly dispute, notably by W. D. Simpson, The Historical St. Columba ( 1927 ), who doubted the claim that the saint had been the apostle of northern Scotland. Two more recent studies are Ian Finlay, St. Columba (London, 1982 ) and Máire Herbert , Iona, Kells, and Derry (Oxford, New York, 1988 )....

sword dance

sword dance   Quick reference

A Dictionary of English Folklore

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...and County Durham, although some tantalizing references indicate possible dances in Cumberland. In these counties, the dancers are mentioned frequently by 19th-century folklorists and other writers as an essential part of Christmas or New Year celebrations, visiting homes and farms and performing in town and village streets. The 20th century found the traditions in definite decline. Many teams had ceased to function completely, and others performed intermittently. It is certainly true that the interest engendered by the work of Sharp and others...

Wales

Wales   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Celtic Mythology

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...in domestic life. Welsh was also the language of literary traditions in different parts of the principality as well as the medium of a continuing oral tradition. Compulsory public education in English repressed Welsh further, but by the end of the 20th century almost 19 per cent of the population (about 500,000) claim that they can speak the language, a higher percentage and a higher total than in any other Celtic culture. OIr. Bretain [not distinguished from Britain]; ModIr. An Breatain Bheag; ScG A'Chuimrigh; Manx Bretyn; Corn. Kembry; Bret. Kembre. See A. O....

Ireland

Ireland   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Celtic Mythology

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...centuries hundreds of other collectors would fill libraries with narratives, many of which are rooted in the oldest documents of Irish literary tradition. The voluminous files of the Irish Folklore Commission, compiled in the 20th century, are more extensive than collections from any other western European country. At the end of the 20th century, the wellsprings of this oral tradition had by no means been exhausted. Oral tradition has survived the calamitous decline of the Irish language. The 1911 census recorded that only 17.6 per cent of the population...

mumming plays

mumming plays   Quick reference

A Dictionary of English Folklore

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...The assumption that the mumming play is a relic of pre-Christian fertility ritual has bedevilled writing on the subject at least since the Second World War, but many writers before that time were more modest in their claims. The presence of St George and the Turkish Knight led many to assume an origin in the period of the Crusades, but as the 20th century advanced, the supposed starting-point of the custom was moved sharply backwards and writers begin to use phrases such as ‘pre-Christian’, ‘pagan’, and ‘fertility ritual’, on a routine basis. The central...

Patrick, Saint

Patrick, Saint   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Celtic Mythology

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...Patrick's life, still in wide circulation at the end of the 20th century, lack reliable documentation. These include: the lighting of the first Paschal fire at Slane; the use of the three-leafed shamrock to explain the mystery of the Christian Trinity; the destruction of the idol Crom Crúaich in Co. Cavan; the conversion of Lóegaire mac Néill of Tara; the conversion of Angus mac Natfráich of Cashel , who did not cry out when Patrick punctured his foot during baptism because he thought it was part of the ceremony; the banishing of the monster Caoránach ,...

Islamic mythology

Islamic mythology   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Mythology

Reference type:
Subject Reference

...convinced them that the fruit of the tree contained the power that made angels and gods (7:19–22, 20:120), and the couple ate the fruit. It is noteworthy that it was the couple, not the woman first and the then the man, who committed this sin. After eating the fruit, the man and the woman became conscious of their nakedness and sexual feelings and covered their Genitals (7:27). Allah scolded them for listening to his enemy, and their life became hard (20:115– 121). Later, as in Genesis, God sent a great flood , during which the prophet Nuh ( Noah ) and...

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