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Part 20 claim

Subject: Law

A claim other than a claim by the claimant against the defendant. It includes (1) a counterclaim by the defendant against the claimant; (2) a counterclaim by the defendant against a third ...

Carlen

Carlen   Reference library

Friedrich Jakob

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
381 words

...Reckingen’. A long catalogue is appended, but many of the dates are invented, and dates of repairs by the Carlens are often given as building dates of organs that are older and not by the Carlens. In particular, the Carlens of the 19th and 20th centuries claimed to have built organs by the Walpen family and other masters. The last members of the family, moreover, no longer had a sound professional training and spoilt many masterpieces of their ancestors. The type of organ built by the Carlens, which changed very little over the generations, shows a combination...

colour and music

colour and music   Reference library

Gerard McBurney

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
1,788 words

...reaction, ever since I can remember. I read somewhere that it's a primitive part of your brain which mixes the senses synaesthetically without meaning to. Bright Blue Music begins and stays in D major. ‘Why didn't you modulate?’ people ask … well, I see blue when I listen to D major. At the time of the early 20th-century vogue for such ideas, there were also many composers who made looser but enthusiastic colour–music associatio1s of this kind, usually without quite seeming to claim specific synaesthetic experiences. Bartók , for example, specified the...

Orgelbewegung

Orgelbewegung   Reference library

Nicholas Stefano Prozzillo

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
1,292 words

...Orgelbewegung . Term referring to the German organ reform movement of the early 20th century. The movement was part of a series of German ‘return’ movements affecting church music, theology, and culture: the Singbewegung , Jugendbewung , Volksmusikbewegung , Orgelbewegung, and in academic theology, the liturgische Bewegung (liturgical revival) and the ‘Luther Renaissance’ movements were all part of a reactionary approach to renewing German culture. Beginning with the influential manifesto Internationales Regulativ für den Orgelbau , which Albert...

arrangement

arrangement   Reference library

Arnold Whittall

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
792 words

...works accessible in this way continued well into the 20th century. In addition, the 19th century saw an increasing tendency to provide sentimental salon arrangements of classical pieces, for example Gounod's notorious Ave Maria ( 1859 ), based on the first Prelude from Bach's ‘48’; and in the earlier 20th century many popular compositions by classical composers were cannibalized by jazz composers and arrangers. Relatively few arrangements have survived as regular concert items since the mid-20th century, although various versions of Bach D minor organ...

Zuffolo

Zuffolo   Reference library

J.A. Fuller Maitland, Anthony C. Baines, and Mary Térey-Smith

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
495 words

...with parts extending from a′ to d‴ ; Tomyris (1717), however, calls for traverso [flute] o zuffolo , and the part has a range of g′ to e‴ . A zuffolo about 8 cm long was mentioned by Grassineau ( A Musical Dictionary , 1740/ R ) as being used to teach birds to sing. This instrument was popularized in London by the blind musician Picco in 1856 and, having become known as the Picco pipe, was manufactured as a toy into the 20th century. There has been much confusion about the 18th-century zuffolo. Bonanni ( Gabinetto armonico , 1722) described the...

Mathushek, Frederick

Mathushek, Frederick (9 June 1814)   Reference library

Anne Beetem Acker

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
904 words

...a ‘sweep scale’ for square pianos that provided wider spacing between the strings. From 1852 to 1857 he operated his own workshop in New York City. During part of this time he worked with the inventor Spencer Driggs in developing a double soundboard with two convex boards coupled together as in a violin. About 1859 he reportedly introduced a grand piano claimed as the largest ever made up to that time. On 20 December 1859 he patented a repetition action and on 2 October 1860 a grand piano with angling strings and with ‘string clamp’ agraffes designed to pull...

Lucknow Musical Tradition

Lucknow Musical Tradition  

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of the Music of India

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Music

...Chaulakhi .) Some Seni descendants in Lucknow established rabāb, sursingār, and bīn gharānās. The formidable Chhajju Khan , with his three sons ( Zafar Khan , Pyar Khan , Basat Khan ) and nephew Bahadur Khan developed the rabāb-sursingār gharānā. A part of this lineage moved to Benares while another part, including Basat Khan, went to Metiaburj, Kolkata, along with Nawab Wajid Ali Shah . Chhoṭé Nabat Khan , a representative of the Seni bīn gharānā stayed on in Lucknow with his son Umrao Khan and maintained the tradition of bīn playing. Later, Umrao...

Romanticism

Romanticism   Reference library

John Warrack

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
1,776 words

...(as representing the superior claims of the imagination). Longings for things far away, an essential Romantic characteristic, could include dreams of remote lands (in a new liking for the exotic) and of the distant past (in the fascination with a past Romantic age of chivalry). The longing for freedom from restraints engendered a passionate desire for national identity and independence and, comparably, a search for individual identity and an admiration for the dominating, convention-scorning figure of the Hero. It was in part the observation of some of these...

cadence

cadence   Reference library

Judith Nagley and Arnold Whittall

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
1,320 words
Illustration(s):
16

...of a tonic chord preceded by a dominant chord (Ex. 8 a ). This may also be known as a final, full, or complete cadence, or a full close, and it is considered to have the greatest degree of finality of all the cadences. Some theorists claim that for the cadence to be perfect the final chord must have the tonic in the top part and that both chords must be in root position (Ex. 8 b ). An ‘imperfect’ cadence normally consists of the dominant chord preceded by any other chord (most commonly I or IV; Ex. 9). This lacks the finality of the perfect and plagal cadences...

Schröter, Christoph Gottlieb

Schröter, Christoph Gottlieb (10 Aug 1699)   Reference library

Maribel Meisel, Philip R. Belt, and Anne Beetem Acker

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
1,235 words

...action was presented without result to the Dresden court in 1721 and never returned to him. Instruments with actions that he claimed copied his design appeared in Germany shortly thereafter, causing him much distress. The letter of 1738 makes clear that he knew of Cristofori’s hammer action through Konig’s translation of Maffei’s article, and Schröter states (wrongly) that Cristofori’s invention postdated his own. While his belated claim as the inventor of the piano has been negated, he was possibly the first to arrive at the concept independently in Germany. ...

Multiple stopping

Multiple stopping   Reference library

Peter Walls

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
1,439 words
Illustration(s):
6

...strings at once, chords or two part-passages which include open strings are also described as double (triple etc.) stops. The technique of multiple stopping seems to have developed early among viol players. It is described in Ganassi’s Regola rubertina (1542–3). Chordal playing, highly developed by such exponents of the English lyra viol as Alfonso Ferrabosco and Tobias Hume at the beginning of the 17th century, seemed central to French Baroque composers. De Machy ( Pièces de violle , 1685) went so far as to claim that pièces d’harmonie best suited...

Koto

Koto   Reference library

W. Adriaansz and Henry Johnson

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
1,610 words
Illustration(s):
2

...curve. There are 13 silk strings of equal length and thickness stretched under equal tension over fixed bridges placed about 10 cm from the right (head) end (as viewed by the player) and about 20 cm from the left (tail) end; nowadays stronger materials such as nylon and tetron are also used, although principally for practice. The length of the vibrating part of the strings is determined by the placement of movable bridges ( ji ), each string having one bridge. The ji are made of wood or ivory (plastic is used on cheap modern instruments). Different...

Esrāj

Esrāj   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of the Music of India

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
719 words
Illustration(s):
1

...All this means that the dilrubā (also called kamancha), mayuri veena, taus, and the esrāj belong to the same family. Here again there are no reliable documents to support any claim. Written sources on such topics often turn out to be printed versions of regional oral traditions. This aside, it is a fact that Gaya was associated with the esrāj. Basit Khan himself spent some part of his life in Gaya or in a nearby region. It is not known whether he played any role in the shaping of the esrāj, and whether he taught it to some pupils. Another name linked with...

Keyed trumpet

Keyed trumpet   Reference library

Reine Dahlqvist and Sabine K. Klaus

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
796 words

...court trumpeter Anton Weidinger. In an advertisement for his ‘Grand Public Concert’ given in Vienna on 28 March 1800, Weidinger stated that work on his ‘organisirte Trompete’, which had taken seven years, was finally accomplished, dating his initial attempts to 1793. Weidinger claimed this concert to be the first public performance on the instrument, which was equipped with several keys. However, in 1798 Weidinger had played in Kozeluch’s Symphonie concertante for mandolin, trumpet, double bass, keyboard, and orchestra at a public concert; the instrument...

Couperin

Couperin   Reference library

Denis Arnold and Julie Anne Sadie

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
1,020 words

...Couperin (ii). The youngest brother, Charles Couperin [ le jeune ] ( b 9 April 1638 ; d Paris, 1679 ), became organist of St Gervais on Louis's death. By 1679 he had also become an officier in the service of the Duchess of Orléans. No music by him survives. His main claim to fame is that he was the father of the most illustrious member of the family. Musically precocious, François Couperin (ii) [ le grand ] ( b Paris, 10 Nov. 1668 ; d Paris, 11 Sept. 1733 ) was at the age of ten promised the post of organist at St Gervais on his father's death...

lied

lied   Reference library

Leslie Orrey and John Warrack

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
1,515 words

...mostly simple and strophic. 2. The 19th and 20th centuries Beethoven's contribution to the lied was weightier. At first influenced by his teacher Neefe , his songs grew in range with his growing care for tonal structure and for more extended forms that included scena ( Adelaide , 1794–5 ) and the pioneering *song cycle An die ferne Geliebte ( 1816 ). Important contributions to the Romantic lied were also made by Weber and Spohr . Schubert wrote more than 600 songs, varying in size from a few bars to 20 or more pages. The vocal line can range from...

Mā̃dar

Mā̃dar   Reference library

Carol M. Babiracki

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
1,105 words

...Typically, both heads are left undecorated. The jaspuria mā̃dar is traditionally associated with the Gha̱sī caste of leather-workers, who play it, make it, and claim to have invented it. In the past they reserved the drum for accompanying janāni jhumar (‘women’s jhumar ’)—group singing and dancing during the monsoon season—using other drums such as the ḍholkī in other seasons. In the later 20th century the ma̱dar was taken up by players of high-status castes and has become the principal drum throughout the year to accompany staged solo singing and most...

Sanṭūr

Sanṭūr   Reference library

Jean During, Scheherazade Qassim Hassan, and Alastair Dick

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
1,422 words

...folk ensembles. In South Asia, the sanṭūr was restricted until recently to Kashmir, with its strong Persian culture; there it is the leading instrument of the religious art-music ensemble sūfyāna kalām (‘Sufic utterance’). In the mid-20th century it was introduced into Hindustani rāga music as a solo instrument. The claim that the name derives from the ancient Sanskrit śatatantrī vīṇā is unsubstantiated. The construction of the Kashmir sanṭūr is similar to that of its Iranian counterpart (though smaller, deeper, and held on the player’s lap), but the tuning...

Palestrina, Giovanni Pierluigi da

Palestrina, Giovanni Pierluigi da (c.1525)   Reference library

Denis Arnold and Tim Carter

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
1,463 words

... wrote the Missa ‘Ecce sacerdos magnus’ in honour of his patron, and it was published in his first book of 1554 with a dedication to Julius ; he was rewarded the following year with a place in the papal choir at the Sistine Chapel, despite the opposition of its members, who claimed the prerogative to appoint their own colleagues. This work (and others published in the same volume) reveals Palestrina's mastery of the Netherlands polyphonic style. Soon after this he published some other volumes, including one of competent but somewhat uninteresting madrigals...

Willis, Henry

Willis, Henry (27 April 1821)   Reference library

Nicholas Thistlethwaite

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
1,508 words

...England , 27 April 1821 ; d London, England , 11 Feb 1901 ). English organ builder . He was articled to John Gray about 1835 but left before completing his apprenticeship to work with Wardle Evans of Cheltenham, an organ builder and maker of harmoniums. Willis later claimed to have developed a two-manual reed organ with Evans (1841) and to have met Dr Samuel Sebastian Wesley when it was exhibited in London. This meeting was the prelude to an association that was to be of considerable significance in Willis’s career. Meanwhile, Willis returned to London...

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