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Part 20 claim

Subject: Law

A claim other than a claim by the claimant against the defendant. It includes (1) a counterclaim by the defendant against the claimant; (2) a counterclaim by the defendant against a third ...

Primitivism

Primitivism   Reference library

A. Richardson and O. Hena

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

..., Gary Snyder , and Seamus Heaney ) and tap into deep ecology. Primitivism’s imperialist hist. has produced a range of responses among postcolonial and multiethnic poetries. In the early to mid-20th c., poets of the Harlem Renaissance ( Langston Hughes , Jean Toomer , Claude McKay ) and Negritude ( Aimé Césaire , Léopold Sédar Senghor , Birago Diop ) claimed the constitutive modernity of pan-Af. cultures and relocated imperial assumptions about race within the West. Primitivism has been further complicated by contemp. poetries informed by ...

Poetry

Poetry   Reference library

S. Owen

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
3,062 words

.... Accounts of poetry as a category tend to outline essential features in an argument that might claim general assent. The range of past and present usage of the word, however, eludes such unifying accounts and invites us to think of poetry as a word of ancient Gr. origin, with a long and rich hist. One part of that hist. is the assumption that the word refers to something that transcends its hist. or has a conceptual core that runs through all the variations in its use. That hist. has been driven by acts of calling certain representations or classes of...

Intention

Intention   Reference library

S. Raval

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
1,982 words

...argue that a great deal of crit. confuses inquiries beginning with “why” (our reasons for finding a poem interesting and successful) with inquiries beginning with “how” (the way the poem came about). The rejection of intentionalist crit. was part of a more comprehensive attack on romanticism launched earlier in the 20th c. by T. E. Hulme and T. S. Eliot . For the modernists, romantic critics such as Walter Pater , C. A. Sainte-Beuve , and Hippolyte Taine are the antagonists whose method of appreciation and judgment of poetry is genetic. The romantic...

Knowledge, Poetry as

Knowledge, Poetry as   Reference library

N. Jenkins

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
2,507 words

...and knowledge are deeply interconnected with one another, it is hard not to wonder whether some critics’ distaste for the idea is not an aberration, like a brief interlude of Alexandrianism within a larger epoch of dogmas. The necessary relations between a claim to special knowledge and a claim to special authority make the subject a politically ambiguous one. But enough practitioners have argued that poetry seeks a unique knowledge that it is difficult to dismiss such an idea out of hand. To an extent, the assertion that poetry directly knows anything...

Lullaby

Lullaby   Reference library

B. Whearty

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...of infancy and the ensnaring chains of adult sexuality. Lullabies have frequently been used as an instrument of cultural and class ventriloquism. While lullaby had long been a form in which an adult lyric masqueraded as a simple song of childhood and men claimed to sing as women, in the 19th and early 20th cs. this practice expanded to explicitly cross racial, ethnic, and class boundaries. Eng. men wrote lullabies in the personae of Scottish women, white Am. men wrote lullabies in the imagined voice and dialect of Af. Am. nurses, and white Am. women wrote...

Poetry Slam

Poetry Slam   Reference library

T. Hoffman

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...crowd. Typically, no props or costumes are allowed, and performances are limited to three minutes. Many slams are open to the public, though some are by invitation only. The poetry slam has been credited as a factor in returning poetry to the people. The poetry slam is part of a broad late 20th-c. resurgence of the spoken word, incl. in music (rap and hip-hop ), and has been likened to ancient trads. of competitive and/or linked rhymes between orators—from the Gr. mythological tale of Apollo and Marsyas to the Af. griots, from the Sanjurokunin sen, or...

Lesbian Poetry

Lesbian Poetry   Reference library

L. Garber

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
1,595 words

...of the era employed natural imagery as metaphor for female genitals, e.g., Dickinson’s “pea that duty locks”; or Lowell’s “stiff, broad outer leaves; / The smaller ones, / Pleasant to touch, veined with purple; / The glazed inner leaves. / One by one I parted you from your leaves.” By fairly early in the 20th c., critics need look no further than the explicit lines of certain poets to find lesbian meaning in the contemp. sense. As early as 1919 , Elsa Gidlow would “ask no man pardon” for daring to “taste with endless kisses” the “flesh, bitter and salt” of a...

Originality

Originality   Reference library

D. Goldstein

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
1,943 words

...Levine ’s “Appropriation Art.” Coming at the problem from the opposite direction, Baudrillard argues that “a truly unique, absolute object … is unthinkable,” because objects draw their meaning from their relation to other objects, to the series of which they are always a part. In the late 20th c., innovation and experiment largely replaced originality as the terms of art in Eng., with subtle differences in emphasis. Although poetry that refers to itself as innovative often explicitly rejects romantic poetic practice, this rejection takes form more often...

Metaphor

Metaphor   Reference library

W. Martin

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
7,279 words

...of metaphor in science is not merely heuristic. Hesse endorses Boyd’s claim (in Ortony) that “metaphors are constitutive of the theories they express, rather than merely exegetical.” As the hists. of science and poetry show, metaphors and models are tools for thought that may or may not prove productive. When productive, they implant thoughts that become part of a society and culture—what we (unconsciously) think with, rather than think about. Pepper’s World Hypotheses claims that different ways of life are based on “root metaphors” that affect every...

Poiēsis

Poiēsis   Reference library

S. Gourgouris

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
1,676 words

...it explains what other programs often cannot: how we encounter a poem as object, how a poem radically alters reality, how a poem is actually made. The hist. of Western poetics includes many episodes in which idealist or even metaphysical claims for poetry are answered (and not necessarily contradicted) by corresponding claims that proceed from poiēsis: e.g., Philip Sidney ’s fusion of Platonism and Aristotelianism in his Defence of Poesy (written ca. 1580 , pub. 1595 ) meets its counterpart in George Puttenham ’s contemporaneous Arte of English Poesie ...

Japanese Poetic Diaries

Japanese Poetic Diaries   Reference library

E. Sarra

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
1,355 words

...becoming central texts in the 20th-c. cross-cultural trad. of haiku poetry first promoted by the imagistes , a group of Anglo-Am. modernist poets publishing under the leadership of Ezra Pound immediately before World War I ( see imagism ). The influence of poetic diaries by Heian and early med. women writers has been similarly far-reaching. Canonized by mod. scholars of “national literature” in Japan, early Japanese “women’s memoir literature” became a vital source of inspiration for Japanese women writers throughout the 20th c. See japan, poetry of ....

Numerology

Numerology   Reference library

A. Fowler and R. Greene

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
1,095 words

...part of the poetic craft or “mystery”—like that whereby the rules of prosody are still handed down. Few Ren. writings about numerology have survived, and these are not on a high plane of critical interest. In the 18th c., with the spread of a new worldview, numbers came to be assigned a less symbolic function, and interest in numerology declined. The romantic movement brought a rupture with the older compositional trad., so that numerology had to be rediscovered by the Pre-Raphaelite D. G. Rossetti , by devout students of med. Catholicism, by early 20th-c....

Love Poetry

Love Poetry   Reference library

S. L. Bermann

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
5,890 words

...love and sexual explicitness that shocked but prepared the way for later poets. Similarly, it was a woman who most transformed Japanese love poetry of the 20th c. Yosano Akiko ’s collection Midaregami changed conventional views of women’s sexuality as it opened new veins of love poetry to men as well as women poets in the 20th c. Mod. Heb. showed renewed interest in secular love poetry in the 20th c., most famously in the work of Yehuda Amichai , but in later poets as well. Exploring more earthly passions, mod. poetry also constructs more earthly,...

Lyric

Lyric   Reference library

V. Jackson

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
8,916 words

...critical function of literary genres and radically changed the understanding of lyric. When lyric shifted from its earlier uses as nostalgic adjective or transcendent idea to become part of a generic system, the hist. of poetic genres was, in turn, revised and rewritten. In the 19th c., the new understanding of genre as hermeneutic rather than taxonomic generated large claims for the lyric as a vehicle of personal expression, but the theoretical social relations of self and other had not yet eclipsed the actual social relations in which verse was exchanged....

Philippines, Poetry of the

Philippines, Poetry of the   Reference library

I. R. Cruz and G. H. Abad

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
1,636 words

...of new learning, not only a favored medium by which to represent the Filipinos to themselves and to the world, but a principal means to employment, social status, prestige, and power. The country’s lit. in Eng., like its scholarship, was bred in the university, and UP may justly claim to be the cradle of Philippine letters in Eng. through its literary organs The College Folio ( 1910–13 ) and The Literary Apprentice (since 1928 ) of the UP Writers’ Club and through its national writers’ workshop every summer since 1964 . In only half a century after the...

Intertextuality

Intertextuality   Reference library

P. Cheney

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
1,935 words

...also returns agency to intertextuality. In “Arachnologies,” Miller uses Ovid’s Arachne myth to contest postmodernism’s suspicion about “the subject,” thereby creating space for female autonomy in a patriarchal world. Second, postcolonialism rejects the emancipatory celebration claimed by Barthes and his heirs when decentering the authorial subject. For Bhabha, as for Gates and others, such decentering furthers the Western project oppressing minorities—a project charted by Michel Foucault , who emphasizes the restrictions placed on the subject by institutions...

Performance

Performance   Reference library

T.V.F. Brogan, W. B. Fleischmann, T. Hoffman, and T. Carper

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
3,875 words

...required to follow. In the 20th c., naturalistic or realistic delivery styles gradually have gained the upper hand over a more artificial, vatic performance style. W. B. Yeats was much concerned with having his work sound spontaneous and natural, though his delivery style, like Ezra Pound ’s, was dramatic and incantatory. By contrast, T. S. Eliot ’s performances were aristocratic in style and tonally flat. The Wagnerian prescription of having the performer seem spontaneous in expression but personally remote had its best 20th-c. exemplar in Dylan...

Intuition

Intuition   Reference library

A. Paolucci, H. Paolucci, M. E. Brown, and T.V.F. Brogan

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
3,007 words

...other arts, its lang. may be song or shape or gesture. It is knowledge, but of an immediate kind and, thus, is prior to conceptual, judgmental, discursive knowledge. There is no claim in poetic intuition that its world is either real or unreal or that that world and the experiencing person are distinct; because it is not a self-conscious experience, it does not even contain the claim that it is itself poetic intuition. Although it is possible to extract concepts and abstract ideas from a poem, in the poem experienced as a poem, these ideas are fused within the...

Poetess

Poetess   Reference library

Y. Prins

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
2,204 words

...critical reading, perhaps most obviously in a renewed impulse to anthologize women’s poetry toward the end of the 20th c. Along with selected trans. of women’s poems from many langs. for the Defiant Muse series (pub. by The Feminist Press), and popular collections such as Cora Kaplan ’s Salt and Bitter and Good: Three Centuries of English and American Women Poets ( 1977 ), anthols. organized by historical period or nationality are part of an ongoing project to recover women poets, not only in books but in digital archives and other technologies for...

Japan, Modern Poetry of

Japan, Modern Poetry of   Reference library

L. Morton

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
4,321 words

...of traditional haiku of the day. In the first few decades of the 20th c., Shiki’s legacy was split into two schools or factions: one led by Kawahigashi Hekigotō ( 1873–1937 ), who advocated haiku written in a mod. free meter format, and the other led by Takahama Kyoshi ( 1874–1959 ), who defended the traditional diction of haiku with its fixed syllabic 5-7-5 pattern, season words, and fixed topical themes. Both poets claimed the mantle of Shiki’s successor, and for most of the 20th c., the two schools continued to flourish independently. Hekigotō...

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