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Part 20 claim

Subject: Law

A claim other than a claim by the claimant against the defendant. It includes (1) a counterclaim by the defendant against the claimant; (2) a counterclaim by the defendant against a third ...

‘Often rebuked, yet always back returning’

‘Often rebuked, yet always back returning’   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Brontes

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
323 words

...‘Often rebuked, yet always back returning’ , undated poem, of 20 lines by Emily Brontë , published by Charlotte in 1850 . Since no manuscript has been found and since all of the other sixteen poems published by Charlotte came from one of Emily's manuscript notebooks, the authorship of this poem has been called into question. Hatfield ( EBP , p. 255) believed it sounded more like Charlotte and others have suggested Anne ( BST ( 1982 ), 18. 92. 143). More recently, Gezari has supported the claim for Charlotte's authorship since resemblances to Emily's poems...

Dearden, William

Dearden, William (1803–89)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Brontes

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
418 words

...it would ‘prove to the world that Branwell was not inferior in genius and power to the gifted Currer Bell’ ( Bradford Observer , 27 June 1861 ; part of the poem was published on 25 August 1842 , Neufeldt BB Works , 3. 375). In the actual event at the inn, however, Branwell brought the wrong manuscript and read instead a story that Dearden later thought resembled Wuthering Heights , so giving rise to claims that Branwell rather than Emily had written the...

Feuerbach, Ludwig

Feuerbach, Ludwig (1804–72)   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to George Eliot

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
1,003 words

...dogmas. True religion lies elsewhere. Religion is not maintained by institutional theologies, but instead by human activity. God or the Trinity are not foreign but native mysteries, the mysteries of human nature (part 1, chapter 4). What is most radical about Feuerbach's method is his inversion of familiar Christian doctrines, which he claims are only projections of human aspiration, or need, or fear, or even cowardice. For example, the incarnation of God in Jesus Christ is not to be understood as a positive event but rather as a way of recognizing and...

Seymour, Robert

Seymour, Robert (1798–1836)   Reference library

Robert Patten

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
710 words

...The controversy flared up again in the 1860s, neither party being willing to let it rest. To the end of his life Dickens was adamant that Seymour's claims be contradicted and that all the evidence supporting his side be assembled and published. Later research indicates that indeed Seymour may have prepared drawings to which Dickens wrote up for Parts 1 and 2, but the novel did not take off until after Part 4, by which stage Dickens had reconceived the original characters and plot, had added new ones, and with Hablot Knight browne as his artist had...

Bentley, Richard

Bentley, Richard (1794–1871)   Reference library

David Paroissien

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
1,502 words

...the copyright and existing stock of Twist with money advanced to him by Chapman and Hall against the publication of Rudge . In return, Bentley surrendered all his claims on any of Dickens's writings. After inviting Bentley to Gad's Hill in 1857 , Dickens remarked how ‘the old wound between us has quite healed up and left no mark’ ( 5 October 1857 ). The publisher's son similarly claimed that ‘the most cordial relations’ existed between his father and Dickens, but blamed Forster for airing the dispute after their deaths. In his Life Forster agreed that...

Ireland and the Irish

Ireland and the Irish   Reference library

Leon Litvack

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
900 words

...overall impression was ‘Tremendous success in Ireland … notwithstanding the Fenian alarms’ (to Frances Elliot , 20 March 1867 ). The third visit, when he read ‘Sikes and Nancy’ in Dublin and Belfast, passed off without incident, though he was aware of a growing nationalist sentiment, and observed, shortly before his departure, that ‘these are not times in which other powers would back our holding Ireland by force, unless we could make our claim good in proving fair and equal government’ (to W. F. de Cerjat , 4 January 1869 ). Despite this anxiety about the...

John Caldigate

John Caldigate   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to Trollope

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
1,538 words

...case, with whom she privately compares herself. She had certainly been Caldigate's common-law wife for a time on the goldfields of New South Wales, and her claim that there had been a legal marriage ceremony is corroborated by a fellow conspirator, Timothy Crinkett, who had been Caldigate's partner in a highly successful gold mine, Polyeuka. Their chief aim is to blackmail Caldigate into paying them £20,000, ostensibly as compensation for the money they lost on the mine after Caldigate sold his share to Crinkett and the gold was found to be worked out....

structuralist approaches

structuralist approaches   Reference library

Carol A. Bock

The Oxford Companion to the Brontes

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
1,437 words

...to influence critical readings of the Brontës' writings by about the middle of the 20th century. The 1960s are the high-water mark for such criticism, and, in its various ramifications (reader-response criticism and deconstruction, for example), structuralism continued to influence critical work on the Brontës throughout the eighties and nineties. Lord David Cecil 's seminal essay on Wuthering Heights is essentially a structuralist reading of the novel since it claims that Emily understood the cosmos as conforming to an underlying dual structure of...

Dante Alighieri

Dante Alighieri (1265–1321)   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to George Eliot

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
867 words

...that Dante's influence on her was not simply associated with things Italian. Dante allusions in Romola form part of its rich intertextual backdrop and are balanced by references to the secular satirical writings of Boccaccio and Luigi Pulci . The novel's opening scene is set outside Dante's birthplace; the Malebolge of Inferno , xviii-xxx are mentioned in chapter 29; and chapter 45 contains two references to Inferno (xx. 7–15 and iv. 20–1). Purgatorio , xxxiii. 130–2 was to be the *epigraph (later discarded) for chapter 2; Purgatorio , xxi. 104...

governesses

governesses   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Brontes

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
1,045 words

...they teach—nor in most instances is half or a quarter of their attainments required by their pupils … It is true the world demands a brilliant list of accomplishments; for £20. per ann.… the demand is insensate’ ( Smith Letters , 2. 63–5). Advertisements for and by governesses implied that they were or should be paragons of learning: in The Times ( 26 Feb. 1848 ) a governess claimed that she was ‘fully competent to instruct without masters, in English, geography, history ancient and modern, French (acquired by a long residence in Paris), Italian, music,...

Chapman and Hall

Chapman and Hall   Reference library

Robert Patten

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
3,488 words

...to put together a first instalment that stops awkwardly two pages into chapter 3. Pickwick Papers , Part 1, appeared at the end of March 1836 and sold poorly. Chapman and Hall reduced the print run from 1,000 to 500 for Part 2. Just after etching a plate for that part, on 20 April, Seymour committed suicide. At this juncture Dickens persuaded Chapman and Hall to continue with the failing project by decreasing the number of illustrations per part from four to two, hiring a new illustrator, extending the letterpress from 24 to 36 pages, and increasing...

self-help

self-help   Reference library

Eric J. Evans

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
1,981 words

...Playfair for advocating more science -teaching there, but he also expressed worries. Too many institutes had ‘fallen into the accursed habit of looking round for external patronage—of abandoning the self-reliance which should be a main part herein with his Employer, to the enduring advantage and improvement of both’ ( 20 December 1853 ). He supported emigration schemes, since those who emigrated had already given sufficient indication of their improving qualities: ‘It is unquestionably melancholy that thousands upon thousands of people, ready and willing...

Felix Holt, the Radical

Felix Holt, the Radical   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to George Eliot

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
4,059 words

...arrested, charged with assault, manslaughter (a constable dies in the riot), and leading a riot. Meanwhile, Harold Transome learns that Esther has a legal claim on his estates. He tries to woo her but stops when he discovers that he is, in fact, illegitimate. At Felix's trial Esther pleads on his behalf and moves influential people to seek a pardon when he is found guilty. She relinquishes her claims on Transome Court in favour of Harold and returns home to Rufus Lyon, hoping that Felix will not be transported. The Transomes, now the legal owners,...

Sketches by Boz

Sketches by Boz   Reference library

Paul Schlicke

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
3,276 words

...to the first number. Dickens responded by offering to write a series of sketches and deferentially asking if the proprietors (who also owned the Morning Chronicle ) ‘would think I had any claim to some additional remuneration (of course no great amount) for doing so’ ( 20 January 1835 ). Both proposals were immediately agreed to: between 31 January and 20 August, 20 ‘Sketches of London’ appeared in the Evening Chronicle , and during that period his salary was increased from five guineas per week to seven. As in the Morning Chronicle sketches, these...

money values

money values   Reference library

Philip Collins

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
1,227 words

...then spent £1,000 on improvements; last time it was on the market, it fetched £500,000. These figures are a reminder that the one shilling for a monthly part of a Dickens serial novel was not a throwaway amount, though spreading the cost of a novel over a year and a half made novel-buying possible for many who could never have afforded a new novel in three volumes at 31s 6d. Serial purchasers would expend 20 shillings plus the cost of binding—more than Bob Cratchit 's weekly wage. Novel-buying was a quite expensive middle-class luxury. Dickens's weeklies, ...

autobiography

autobiography   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to Hardy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
2,259 words

...to categorize and to evaluate. As originally completed by Florence Hardy it is perhaps best considered as an official biography largely authored by its subject. As re-edited from the typescripts as an exclusively Hardyan text it has stronger claims to be considered a third-person autobiography, although such claims are diminished, even so, by the concentration upon external events—Hardy's life in his times—rather than upon personal introspection and reflection. The Life is similarly compromised as a source of biographical information. Because the...

post-colonial theory

post-colonial theory   Reference library

Carol A. Bock

The Oxford Companion to the Brontes

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
1,359 words

...imperialism’ (p. 145) within the tradition of feminist literary criticism on the Brontës, and she faults critics for failing to notice ‘the theme of colonial adventure that lies at the heart of the juvenilia’ (p. 138). Azim's work is most original and enlightening in its claim that Charlotte gradually developed ‘the most important formal device that accrues to the novel [as a literary form] … the narrative subject’ (p. 145) by repeatedly invoking in her juvenilia a racial Other (like Quashia Quamina) against which that subject could be defined. Meyer...

Middlemarch: A Study of Provincial Life

Middlemarch: A Study of Provincial Life   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to George Eliot

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
5,014 words

...St Peter's in particular, whose red drapery affects her like ‘a disease of the retina’ ( MM 20); and later returning from this unhappy honeymoon to gaze blankly out upon the winter landscape at Lowick, which reflects back to her the desolation of her own emotional state ( MM 28). The culmination of these moments of seeing is the famous moral climax where she opens her curtains and looks out upon a world of labour and endurance, in which she resolves to play her part by doing what she can to help her friends ( MM 80). This scene at the window is a dramatic...

Mayor of Casterbridge, The

Mayor of Casterbridge, The   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to Hardy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
4,338 words

...20 February, 18–19; 27 February, 20–1; 6 March, 22–3; 13 March, 24–5; 20 March, 26–7; 27 March, 27 (contd.)–29; 3 April, 30–2; 10 April, 33–4; 17 April, 35–6; 24 April, 37–8; 1 May, 39–41; 8 May, 41 (contd.)–43; 15 May, 44–5. It was serialized simultaneously in the American magazine Harper's Weekly . Hardy later came to feel that he ‘had damaged [the novel] more recklessly as an artistic whole in the interest of the newspaper in which it appeared serially, than perhaps any other of his novels, his aiming to get an incident into almost every week's part...

charity and Dickens

charity and Dickens   Reference library

Norris Pope

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
3,521 words

...claim is by far the stronger and more pressing of the two’ ( 9 July 1852 ). Dickens's point was a good one: in 1847 , for example, the three largest foreign missionary societies all enjoyed incomes in excess of £100,000, whereas the London City Mission, the best-known domestic missionary agency, had an income of only slightly over £14,000. Dickens commended the London City Mission for some of its work in London slums (particularly in Household Words ), and in 1860 he gave cautious praise to a theatre service at the Britannia in Hoxton, which was part of...

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