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Part 20 claim

Subject: Law

A claim other than a claim by the claimant against the defendant. It includes (1) a counterclaim by the defendant against the claimant; (2) a counterclaim by the defendant against a third ...

Popular Culture

Popular Culture   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,520 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...mid-20s, and the extensive period during which courtship loomed large was reason enough for young women to want to read or consult fortune-tellers about the subject of marriage, and to be reassured that they could have recourse to supernatural help in seeing, or even finding, their future partner. Corinthian Kate and Joanna Southcott might seem to have had little in common. However, the Devonshire prophetess was also much preoccupied with love: she exercised a holy courtship with Christ, refracted her often erotic language through Scripture, and claimed her...

Revolution

Revolution   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,734 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...an equalization of property, not just an equalization of political rights. Although this was partly a rhetorical device, the example of France after 1789 added a powerful element of anxiety to such claims. From the early summer of 1792 , when the first Royal Proclamation Against Seditious Writings was issued and prosecution against Paine's Rights of Man: Part the Second was inaugurated, the establishment suffered recurrent bouts of anxiety about the prospect of a political and social revolution. These anxieties were not groundless, nor should we dismiss...

Viewing

Viewing   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,051 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...for the emergence of the notion that what a nation collects or accumulates is as much a part of its cultural capital as what it produces artistically. In this formula the cabinets of curiosities and art treasures formed by private individuals could be and were included in a contemporary definition of nationhood. Events such as the dispersal of the Walpole collection at Houghton Hall and the various schemes proposed for the establishment of a National Gallery are part of a halting articulation of what might now be termed a sense of national ‘cultural...

Natural Philosophy (Science)

Natural Philosophy (Science)   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,186 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...specialized disciplines. Increasingly, as each of these claimed autonomy from other scientific fields, they also rejected any dependence on non-scientific grounds of legitimation. In the eighteenth century, natural philosophy had successfully supplied an embracing rationale; by the 1830s, the various sciences were beginning to speak for themselves. Crosland, M. , ‘ The Image of Science as a Threat: Burke versus Priestley and the “Philosophic Revolution ”’, British Journal for the History of Science , 20 (1987), 287–318; Cunningham, A. , & Jardine, N. ,...

War

War   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,919 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...In Britain the outcome of the war was interpreted as evidence of God's plan. The excitement increased rather than diminished as the country claimed the title of ‘saviour of Europe’, and as the expansion of its territories and power around the globe accelerated after 1810 . The world position Britain assumed as a result of the Napoleonic wars renewed the vision of a warless world, with commerce having an important part in its making. Such views can seem to indicate a society that was complacent about its institutions, confidently insular against foreign...

Industrialization

Industrialization   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,380 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...immigration to the towns and overseas also produced the pauperization and underemployment described, but not fully understood, by commentators of the time. Genuine depopulation, in the sense of a fall in the absolute numbers of the rural population was, in spite of Cobbett's claims, only to be found in a few specialized cases. *Enclosure , as we now know, did not necessarily lead to a reduction in the labour force required, whatever other effects it may have entailed. A decline of the rural population and of the agricultural labour force was certainly...

Class

Class   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,846 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Huns and Tartars’. Popular publisher Charles Knight ( 1791–1873 ) saw that ‘the triumphant song of “Labour Defended against the Claims of Capital”’ could only take place ‘amid the shriek of the jackal and the howl of the wolf’. Language, especially rhetoric or the language of persuasion, needs to be considered as social communication and situated within the historical context of the social relations where it played an active part. The shift from eighteenth- to nineteenth-century Britain, by way of political repression, economic revolution, and cultural...

Sensibility

Sensibility   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
7,039 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...conversion, in which women were given a decisive role. Their power derived in large part from tearfulness, fainting, and physical weakness, a style of sensibility which was sexualized as a source of arousal to unreformed men. At the same time, the conversion of a man's behaviour did not necessarily challenge the male's powerful legal authority as husband and father. The fact that sensibility suggested a distinct world-view, infused with religious values and claiming to reform a fallen population by conversion, raises the possibility that sensibility did...

Antiquarianism (Popular)

Antiquarianism (Popular)   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,164 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...have good claims to be the initiators of modern anthropology and sociology, but the purpose of this essay is to establish their contribution to cultural history and the professional modern study of both *language [40] and literature. The first part outlines the work of four exemplary figures, all active in diverse aspects of *popular culture [23] by the last quarter of the eighteenth century— John *Brand , Francis *Grose , Joseph *Ritson , and Francis *Douce , and one in the early nineteenth century, William *Hone . The second part explores the...

Prints

Prints   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,058 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...could provide a kind of equivalence to a painting, but could never pass for a facsimile. In the hands of the best practitioners, like William *Sharp , engravings could produce remarkable effects of tone: they retained a strong aura of probity and ancient craft, but they never claimed to capture the texture of the original. Painters, when making prints themselves, almost always preferred the less laborious and infinitely more spontaneous medium of etching, which required them not to wrestle with a burin but simply to scratch with a needle-pointed tool through...

Democracy

Democracy   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,165 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the southern counties took part in the alarming Swing riots. Since there was no adequate professional police force and no large army to call upon, those in power could never afford to ignore the violent protests of the common people [ see *riots and *policing, 7 ]. Violent protests and radical political agitation were most likely to occur in periods of crisis created by economic depression at home and revolution abroad. Bad harvests and industrial depression were particularly severe in the mid- and late-1790s, 1810–13 , 1816–20 , and 1829–32 , while the...

Architecture

Architecture   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,949 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

.... During the war years—which for the most part precluded overseas expeditions—a series of commercially produced books publicized the nation's own archaeological patrimony, for example Britton 's Architectural Antiquities of Great Britain ( 1807–14 ). These works engaged middle-class interest in the preservation of old *Gothic buildings and the construction of new Gothic-style structures, primarily for domestic and religious uses. Professional architects were, in general, less interested. Gothic was not part of their training. It lacked classicism's...

Painting

Painting   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,778 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... Anthony Pasquin [ see John Williams ], or Lyric Odes to the Royal Academicians ( 1782–5 ) by Peter Pindar [ see John *Wolcot ], published regularly over the last two decades of the eighteenth century, offered a satirical and sophisticated rebuttal to the Academy's lofty claims to grandeur. And by the time William *Hazlitt was writing about contemporary art for publications like the Champion and the Morning Review in the second decade of the nineteenth century, art criticism was confidently assuming the same kind of critical and theoretical...

Slavery

Slavery   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,891 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...pale), and even children (courtesy of the proliferation of abolitionist *children 's literature) were rallied to the abolitionist banner. On the eve of the *French Revolution , the social and political alliances forged by the anti-slave trade movement enabled the campaign to claim to be the most popular movement demanding major political change. Demands for the abolition of the slave trade—the easiest, most practical entrée to the wider problem of colonial slavery itself—were firmly lodged in parliament and supported by a massive national base well before...

Wilkes, John

Wilkes, John (1725–1797)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
931 words

...of privilege as a member of Parliament, and he had the satisfaction of seeing the Court of Common Pleas declare unlawful the issuance of general warrants for searches of unspecified premises. He was nevertheless expelled from the House of Commons on 20 January 1764 , when its members rejected a claim that proceedings against him for libel had been in breach of parliamentary privilege. In his absence (he had crossed to the European continent in late 1763 ), Wilkes was outlawed on 1 November by the Court of King's Bench for publishing libels, including...

Ancients and Moderns

Ancients and Moderns   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
2,706 words

...prejudices that had led people astray. René Descartes ( 1596–1650 ) rejected the authority of the Ancients in scientific questions as part of his system of methodical doubt: “What the ancients have taught is so scanty and for the most part so lacking in credibility that I may not hope for any kind of approach toward truth except by rejecting all the paths which they have followed” ( Les passions de l'âme , Paris, 1649 , Part 1, art. 1, as freely translated by Aldridge, 1973 , p. 76).The historical pessimism of Lucretius ( 94–55 bce ) concerning a general...

French Revolution

French Revolution   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
7,072 words

...from any hint of political criticism. Although he claimed to have read La nouvelle Hélöse at the age of nine and took it with him on every campaign, he expressed little enduring interest in the political or social views of the philosophes. He was sufficiently impressed by his reading of Raynal's Histoire des deux Indes to call on the author in September 1789 , but there is no evidence that he seriously studied Montesquieu, read Diderot, or even looked at the Encyclopédie . Later in life, he claimed that “until I was sixteen, I would have fought to the...

Virtue

Virtue   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
4,377 words

...(book 20). This is indicative of a shift away from martial virtues like courage and values like glory to what the Scottish philosopher and political economist Adam Smith, in his Theory of Moral Sentiments ( 1759 ), following Montesquieu's terminology, labeled the “gentle virtues” of decency, modesty, and moderation. In Lectures on Jurisprudence , the student-recorded version of his Glasgow University lectures in the 1760s, Smith was more precise, identifying probity and punctuality as the principal virtues of a commercial nation (where the greater part of the...

Pietism

Pietism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
3,957 words

...of the movement accepted as conforming to their faith and enlarged with contributions of their own. Some early seventeenth-century works were included in this canon, such as those of Johann Arndt and even some of the early writings of Martin Luther, since the Pietists claimed to continue the work of the Reformation. Pietist authors produced an impressive number of literary works that they believed to be truly Christian—books, pamphlets, and hymns. Karl Heinrich von Bogatzky and Zinzendorf were prolific writers in the eighteenth century, Albert...

Malebranche, Nicolas

Malebranche, Nicolas (1638–1715)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
2,539 words

...cannot fail to reveal either eternal truths or the essences of things in the world created by God. Finally, Malebranche, in his theodicy—the explanation of how God's wisdom, goodness, justice, and power are to be reconciled with the apparent imperfections and evils in the world—claimed that God could have created a more perfect world, free from all the defects and sins that plague this one, but that this would have involved greater complexity in the divine ways. God must act in the manner most in accord with his supremely perfect and simple nature; therefore,...

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