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Part 20 claim

Subject: Law

A claim other than a claim by the claimant against the defendant. It includes (1) a counterclaim by the defendant against the claimant; (2) a counterclaim by the defendant against a third ...

43a The History of the Book in Southeast Asia (1): The Islands

43a The History of the Book in Southeast Asia (1): The Islands   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
2,543 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...the Islamic South; independence from Spain declared in 1898 , but only achieving sovereignty from the US in 1946 ) are predominantly Roman Catholic. The city-state of Singapore (independence: 1965 ), previously a British colony and part of Malaysia, is often referred to as a ‘Chinese enclave’ by its neighbours. Until the 20 th century, the overwhelming majority of the myriad language communities in this region were pre-literate. However, most of them have rich and varied oral traditions. It has been argued that even in the ‘literate’ societies—such as...

24 The History of the Book in Germany

24 The History of the Book in Germany   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,033 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...2 The Middle Ages 3 The 15 th century 4 The 16 th century 5 The 17 th century 6 The 18 th century 7 The 19 th century 8 The 20 th century 1 Introduction Historically, ‘Germany’ is difficult to define in geographical and political terms. The Roman province of Germania covered only the southern part of what we now call Germany; the area north and east of the Danube, Main, and Rhine was never part of the Roman empire. Whereas around 1200 Germany was thought of as extending ‘from the Rhine to Hungary’—and Hoffmann von Fallersleben in the...

7 The Book as Symbol

7 The Book as Symbol   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
1,981 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...the purest efficacy and extraction of that living intellect that bred them’. The book thus achieves a further mystery, of transforming what appears to be purely immaterial and conceptual into something with a concrete form. It is therefore not entirely extravagant for Milton to claim that a book possesses ‘a life beyond life’. Destroying a book, then, Milton says, is like an act of homicide—indeed it is worse than that, since a book encloses the life of more than one person and exists in more than one time. Paradoxically, regardless of the material survival of...

12 The Economics of Print

12 The Economics of Print   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,040 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...*apprentices and apprenticeships and to seize illegal books ( see censorship ), and it prohibited printing by non-members. This largely confined printing to London, centralizing the trade until the end of the 17 th century ( see 20a ). The Company’s custom of recording permission to print a book—a practice inaugurated in part to forestall adverse competition between its members—became regularized, and in 1559 the *Stationers’ Register became the authoritative record within the trade of who had the right to print copies of a work. By Elizabeth I ’s...

36 The History of the Book in the Balkans

36 The History of the Book in the Balkans   Reference library

Aleksandra B. Vraneš

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
3,947 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...commissioned by Prince Miroslav , brother of Stefan Nemanja (later known as St Simeon), the ruler of the most successful medieval Serbian kingdom of Raška. The richly illuminated gospels are among the most beautiful Slavonic MSS; unsurprisingly, both Montenegrins and Serbs claim them as part of their own written heritage. Stefan Nemanja’s youngest son, Rastko Nemanjić (later St Sava), is considered the founder of the independent Serbian Orthodox Church and the author of the Life of St Simeon . The father and son were also founders of Hilandar monastery, an...

The Poor

The Poor   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,036 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...rents. The old system caused endless trouble between ratepayers and those who claimed relief, and its operation varied considerably from one parish to another, but it was flexible enough to provide housing, food, and clothing for those who were regarded as the ‘deserving’ or ‘impotent’ poor. Controversy raged over men who were thought to be able‐bodied but work‐shy, especially those who had come into a parish from outside and who were not therefore thought to have a legitimate claim on their neighbours’ charity. Providing for the poor created a great deal of...

Family and Society

Family and Society   Quick reference

Ralph Houlbrooke

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,144 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...descent of †surnames, no clearly defined group of kinsfolk outside the nuclear family has had special claims on the individual. Loyalty to the name was far stronger in Scotland. But there too, at any rate in the Lowlands, households seem to have been economically independent. Finally, English households were normally based on a nuclear family, and numbered between four and five persons on average from the 16th century until the beginning of the 20th. The same was probably true of Lowland Scottish ones. The medieval sources which tell us most about the...

1 Writing Systems

1 Writing Systems   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,152 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
7

...most important claim is that Chinese characters are ‘ideographic’—a word now generally avoided by scholars in favour of the more specific ‘logographic’. That is, the characters are thought to be capable of communicating ideas without the intervention of phoneticism or indeed spoken language. Thus, Chinese speakers of Mandarin and Cantonese who do not know each other’s ‘dialect’ and cannot talk to each other are said to be able to communicate in writing through Chinese characters. Some scholars (both Chinese and westerners) have even claimed that the same...

South Asian Genealogy

South Asian Genealogy   Quick reference

Abi Husainy

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
3,254 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...checking locally for plantation records. In 1963 a group of Tamils petitioned the Queen, claiming citizenship of the United Kingdom and Colonies under the British Nationality Act 1948 and asking Her Majesty to intervene on their behalf with the Ceylon government. Those Tamils without Ceylonese citizenship and who were born in Ceylon to fathers who were born in Ceylon qualified for British citizenship. The National Archives at Kew hold under document reference DO 176/20 the original copy of the presentation of the petition, which gives 700 names, occupations,...

Britain and America: A Common Heritage

Britain and America: A Common Heritage   Quick reference

George Redmonds

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,879 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...findings in A History of British Surnames ( 1990 ). It is safer for genealogists to avoid generalities, and work on the assumption that each surname is distinct, going back to a particular individual, in a particular place, and at a particular moment in history. That is not to claim that all those people who share a surname necessarily share a common ancestry, for that is often not the case. It does mean, though, that a person called Taylor can hope to identify his own Taylor ancestor, the individual who was first given that name, possibly in quite different...

11 The Technologies of Print

11 The Technologies of Print   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,192 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
8

...the late 1840s . More sophisticated machines of this kind were marketed successfully and used well into the 20 th century ( see composing machines ). The second system, which overtook the first, was for a machine that cast a new printing surface. Several machines of this kind were invented and produced between the 1880s and World War I, but only two of them effectively survived; these divided the larger part of the market between them during the 20 th century. In 1887 , the Linotype machine was launched by *Mergenthaler , a German immigrant to the US. A...

20b The History of the Book in Britain, 1801–1914

20b The History of the Book in Britain, 1801–1914   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,058 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...b The History of the Book in Britain, 1801–1914 Leslie Howsam 1 A book culture 2 Economics 3 Production and publishing 4 Circulation and preservation 5 Subjects and genres 6 Reading 1 A book culture Print was the principal medium of written communication in Britain during the 19 th and early 20 th centuries. In that era of rapid population increase and concentrated industrial, urban, and imperial expansion, MS circulation was minimal and broadcasting lay in the future. Along with *periodicals and *newspapers , books and *pamphlets constituted the...

28 The History of the Book in Italy

28 The History of the Book in Italy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,068 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...the copying and decoration of MSS for such clients as Cosimo de’ Medici and Federico da *Montefeltro . Late in life, Vespasiano included in his memoirs a spiteful jab at the printing press, which was putting traditional bookmakers like himself out of business. His jaundiced claim that Federico would never have allowed a printed text in his collection is unfounded, but revealing. It shows that it is misleading to apply to Italy the idea—intrinsic to Lucien *Febvre ’s and Henri-Jean *Martin ’s French concept of the *history of the book —of a sharp rupture...

Surnames

Surnames   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,649 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...20–50 per cent of a random sample have a common ancestor and it is not clear whether the rest have ancestors who were illegitimate or who changed their name (e.g. when a widowed mother remarried) or whether the rest are descended from separate bearers of the same name. The question of single or plural origins for distinctive surnames often remains unanswered. DNA testing in relation to surnames is still in its infancy and further advances can be expected when much more work has been done. The research is international, for it can prove or disprove claims...

8 The Transmission of Jewish Knowledge through MSS and Printed Books

8 The Transmission of Jewish Knowledge through MSS and Printed Books   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
4,966 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in all modern languages. Oz’s monumental and highly erudite novel A Tale of Love and Darkness ( 2004 ) recounts his own family saga and covers Jewish history and intellectual life of the 19 th , 20 th , and 21 st centuries: while writing about himself and his family, he is also telling the story of the Jews. As such his work is both an integral part of a millennium-old tradition and a worthy representative of the promising future of the Hebrew (for which now read Israeli) book. Bibliography S. J. Agnon , Das Schaß meines Großvaters (1925) M....

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
13,110 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...are especially notorious, but the phenomenon has continued into the present era: important Islamic MS collections have been wholly or partly destroyed in and after the wars in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Kosovo, Afghanistan, and Iraq in the late 20 th and early 21 st centuries. What remains, however, forms a substantial part of the world’s intellectual and textual heritage. Not only is this heritage a vital underpinning of Muslim life and thought, but it has also constituted an essential strand of the European philosophical and scientific tradition. This was...

Scottish Local and Family History

Scottish Local and Family History   Quick reference

David moody

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,622 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of course, are themselves part of history; and today's preoccupations would have been considered very odd, even perverted in some cases, a hundred years ago. Our concern with ‘the people’ reflects our celebration of democracy, coupled with an attendant insecurity about lack of rankings. Aptly, the unsung book which launched the modern approach to history was Lawrence Saunders , Scottish Democracy ( 1950 ), which covered the key period from 1815 to 1840 . The same is true of family history. The fascination with forebears is part of the democratic...

48 The History of the Book in America

48 The History of the Book in America   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
12,975 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...and Houghton Mifflin’s Horace Scudder remained committed to fulfilling that promise—hence, their willingness to publish poetry or criticism at a loss—but they did so in part because they understood that distinguishing their firms from reprint houses and producers of cheap fiction had its own marketing value. In their efforts to rationalize production and distribution, late 19 th - and early 20 th -century publishers also tried to gain control over the price of books. The imposition of international copyright protection in 1891 and the consequent blow to...

18 Theories of Text, Editorial Theory, and Textual Criticism

18 Theories of Text, Editorial Theory, and Textual Criticism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,963 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...autographs, but representative of the state of the New Testament at the time of the Council of Nicaea ( ad 325 )—thus obviating a huge proportion of the tens of thousands of variants amongst later, and generally less authoritative, MSS. On the basis of his collations he claimed: ‘I find that by taking 2,000 errors out of the Pope’s Vulgate, and as many out of the Protestant Pope Stephens’ [i.e. Estienne’s 1546 New Testament], I can set out an edition of each in columns, without using any book under 900 years old, that shall … exactly agree.’ Aware...

20a The History of the Book in Britain, c.1475–1800

20a The History of the Book in Britain, c.1475–1800   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,011 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the pieces now considered masterworks of the English Renaissance may not have had such elevated status (at least from a publishing point of view) in their own time. This is particularly true of Renaissance drama. In the early 20 th century, some bibliographical scholars plotted scenarios in which unscrupulous publishers sought out bit-part actors and paid them to reconstruct the text of popular plays from memory so that they could rush them into print (as ‘*bad’ quartos ) and turn a quick profit. Blayney challenged this view in 1997 , arguing that the...

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