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Part 20 claim

Subject: Law

A claim other than a claim by the claimant against the defendant. It includes (1) a counterclaim by the defendant against the claimant; (2) a counterclaim by the defendant against a third ...

Bisitun

Bisitun   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

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Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
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1,406 words
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...In the beginning of the Bisitun inscription, Darius is clearly concerned about bolstering his claim to the throne. Thus, special stress is laid on his standing as an Achaemenid; and, while his selection as king is ascribed to the divine “favor of Ahuramazda,” it is also made clear that it was the personal actions of Darius that were responsible for the downfall of “Gaumata the magus”—an apparent impostor who had abrogated Achaemenid rule. The greater part of the rest of the inscription is taken up with a description of the fate of those who then sought to...

Yahudiyeh, Tell el-

Yahudiyeh, Tell el-   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

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Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,272 words
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...brief report on the author's excavations at the site in 1951 and 1952, and claims (though without supporting data) that among his discoveries were tombs of the Middle Kingdom. Badawy, Alexander . “ A Monumental Gateway for a Temple of King Sety I: An Ancient Model Restored. ” Miscellanea Wilbouriana 1 (1972): 1–20. Provides full publication and a reconstruction of the nineteenth-dynasty model sanctuary gateway found at Tell el-Yahûdîyeh and now in the Brooklyn Museum. An appendix (pp. 20–23) by Elizabeth Riefstahl discusses the modern history of this monument...

Sefire Aramaic Inscriptions

Sefire Aramaic Inscriptions   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
723 words

...acquired by the Damascus Museum In 1948 , and stela III by the Beirut Museum In 1956 . Stela I was first called the Sujin stela because Sébastien Ronzevalle, a French Jesuit and professor at Université St. Joseph, Beirut, had been misled about its findspot by the natives who claimed to have discovered it at Sujin. The stela is inscribed on three sides of a rectangular basalt stone. Because the stone was cut after it was engraved, not only was the text on the left side of face A lost, but also the beginnings of the upper lines on face A and the ends of the...

Cyprus

Cyprus   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

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Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
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5,668 words
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...bce ) even claimed the conquest of Cyprus In 707 bce , an event commemorated by the erection of an inscribed stela, apparently in the vicinity of Kition. (The stela was found by chance in the late nineteenth century and is now in the Vorderasiatisches Museum in Berlin.) This so-called conquest seems to have left no more of a trace in the material remains of eighth-century bce Cyprus than did the earlier conquest claimed by the Hittite king Šuppiluliuma II, at the end of the thirteenth century bce . Both the Hittite and the Assyrian kings claimed tribute...

Amathus

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

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Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,755 words

...its part, the Department of Antiquities of Cyprus has taken charge of the excavation of the lower city and associated tombs, especially in those areas, where sites are threatened by constructions prompted by tourism. [ See the biographies of di Cesnola and Gjerstad .] Many sites located close to the city testify to an occupation of the region since the Pre-Pottery Neolithic but, curiously, no important settlement has yet been attested in the Late Bronze Period, when the south coast of Cyprus knew its most important development (despite Cesnola's claims to...

Yin῾am, Tel

Yin῾am, Tel   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,835 words

...with parallels at Byblos. These figurines from Tel Yin῾am were found in association with an MB II cooking pot and the upper part of a large, unusual jar with plastic and incised decoration. The northern part of the structure had been bulldozed by a local farmer prior to excavation; its southeastern part remains unexcavated. Other MB II sherds were found in fills elsewhere in area B. The tell was abandoned until the latter part of the Late Bronze Age. A ten-room central building (building 1) that served as the residence of the local ruler existed...

Alexandria

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
3,656 words
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2

...Complete account of the most impressive of Alexandria's tomb complexes, comprising part of a report of the Sieglin expedition. Swelim, Nabil , ed. Alexandrian Studies in Memoriam Daoud Abdu Daoud . Alexandria, 1993. Collection of essays on the history, topography, archaeology, and art of ancient Alexandria. Tkaczow, Barbara . “Archaeological Sources for the Earliest Churches in Alexandria.” In Coptic Studies: Acts of the Third International Congress of Coptic Studies, Warsaw, 20–25 August 1984 , edited by Wlodzimierz Godlewski , pp. 431–435. Warsaw, 1990....

Demography

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,767 words

...was self-sufficient in grain growing and, indeed, in raising all basic commodities but not in refining metals. Ancient sources, as well as modern parallels, suggest that the annual per capita consumption of ancient Palestine was about 200 kg. Including grain for sowing (20 percent), waste (20 percent), and animal feed (10 percent), the gross consumption reached about 300 kg. It seems that the grain-growing capacity of Palestine is well represented by the harvests of the years 1940–1942 . These three years during World War II saw peak harvests, not...

First Jewish Revolt

First Jewish Revolt   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,792 words

...of some of the later Roman procurators and the hostile activity of the extreme Jewish groups usually identified with the Zealots and the Sicarii. In the years that led to the outbreak of the revolt the latter two became factions in the so-called Fourth Philosophy group, which claimed that no ruler except God could rule the Jews, and therefore the Jews must free themselves from the yoke of Roman rule in Palestine. The first Jewish Revolt was preceeded by intensive fighting between the gentiles and the Jews in the mixed cities of Palestine. In April/May 66 ce...

Church Inscriptions

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

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Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
2,485 words
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2

...Jewish Christians, their veneration of the holy places, and their theology, has been claimed by some scholars (see, in particular, Emmanuele Testa, Il simbolismo dei giudeo-cristiani , Jerusalem, 1962 ), but there is so far no consensus of scholarly opinion, as the risk inherent in misdating and interpreting devotional graffiti is great. On the other hand, recent epigraphic support for the presence of Jewish Christian groups in ancient villages in the Golan is claimed by Claudine Dauphin (“Encore des Judéo-Chrétiens au Golan?,” in Early in Christianity...

Ḥesban

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
2,406 words

... 21:21–25 ( cf. Dt. 2:16–37; JDt. 5:15 ), where it is referred to as the city of the Sihon king of the Amorites. Numbers 21:26–31 claims that at least the southern half of Sihon's kingdom, the geographic tableland known in the Hebrew Bible as the Mishor ( Nm. 21:30; cf. Dt. 2:36 ), had been Moabite, but that Sihon had earlier wrested it from Moabite control. Israel's claim that though Moabite territory was forbidden to them, the Mishor was an exception because it had been Amorite during the conquest is again made in Judges 11:12–28...

῾Ajjul, Tell EL-

῾Ajjul, Tell EL-   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
2,377 words

...0934 × 0976). The site is poorly preserved as a result of encroaching dunes and seasonal flooding; it is at least 8 ha (20 acres) in size and rectangular in shape. William M. Flinders Petrie excavated Tell el-῾Ajjul for the British School of Archaeology from 1930 to 1934 . Ernest H. Mackay and Margaret A. Murray briefly continued the excavation In 1938 . Less than 5 percent of the site has been excavated. Petrie claimed that Tell el-῾Ajjul was ancient Gaza. However, Aharon Kempinski ( 1974 ) notes that ancient Gaza was probably located within...

Beersheba

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

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Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
3,368 words
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...20:1; 1 Sm. 3:20; 2 Sm. 3:10, 17:11, 24:15; 1 Kgs. 5:5 ). [See Judah .] Elijah passed through Beersheba on his journey to Mt. Horeb ( 1 Kgs. 19:3 ), and Amos condemned the pagan rites held at Beersheba along with those at Dan, Bethel, and Gilgal ( Am. 5:5, 8:14 ). Identification and Excavations. Although the identification of Tell es-Saba῾ with biblical Beersheba seems to be confirmed by excavation ( Aharoni , 1973 ; Rainey , 1984 ), some scholars see a contradiction between the biblical accounts and the finds. Mervyn D. Fowler claims...

Nationalism and Archaeology

Nationalism and Archaeology   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
7,819 words

...nation's sovereignty over its own archaeological heritage. International legal claims began to be expressed for the “repatriation” of antiquities removed during the colonial era: Greek claims for the restoration of the Elgin marbles from England; Egyptian claims for the restoration of the Nefertiti bust from Germany; and Turkish claims for the restoration of the “Treasure of Priam” from the former Soviet Union were merely the most highly publicized. Here, too, the specific claims should not be permitted to obscure the shared character of a regional phenomenon....

Sardinia

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
2,334 words

...Italian Polada culture. By about 1400 bce , however, if not earlier, Sardinia was an integral part of a commercial network that extended from the Near East to north-western Europe. The principal eastern component of this network was Cyprus, and it seems that the peak period of the Sardinia-Cyprus nexus was the twelfth century bce ; it is evident that the connection continued to the end of the second millennium, or even beyond, when it can be considered part of the Phoenician trade. During the high-water period of Cypriot trade, Sardinia was also in direct...

Lahav

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,564 words

...and other structures in the Khuweilifeh village were used seasonally by Arab fellahin —sharecroppers, shepherds, craftsmen, and traders—working as clients of bedouin who claimed ownership of the region. Bibliography Abel, Félix-Marie . Géographie de la Palestine . Vol. 2. Paris, 1938. Biran, Avraham , and Ram Gophna . “ An Iron Age Burial Cave at Tel Halif. ” Israel Exploration Journal 20 (1970): 151–169. Borowski, Oded. “The Biblical Identity of Tel Halif.” Biblical Archaeologist 51.1 (1988): 21–27. Gophna, Ram , and Varda Sussman . “ A Jewish Burial Cave...

Nimrud

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

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Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
2,844 words
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3

...rebuilt twice—the second time by Sargon, who may have used it as a royal residence. An important collection of ivories come from this palace (see above). The Nabu Temple included shrines dedicated to Nabu and his consort Tashmetum and a reception suite. Ashurnasirpal claimed to have founded the building, but much of the construction work was done in the reign of Adad-Nirari III. A number of tablets were found here, including the “vassal treaties” of Esarhaddon. The temple held two pairs of statues of attendant gods, one colossal and one life-sized;...

Khorsabad

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
2,437 words
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2

...on Mesopotamian art and architecture (see esp. pp. 143–152). Fuchs, Andreas . Die Inschriften Sargons II. aus Khorsabad . Göttingen, 1994. Loud, Gordon . Khorsabad , part 1, Excavations in the Palace and at a City Gate . Oriental Institute Publications, 38. Chicago, 1936. Includes chapters by Henri Frankfort and Thorkild Jacobsen . Loud, Gordon , and Charles B. Altman . Khorsabad , part 2, The Citadel and the Town . Oriental Institute Publications, 40. Chicago, 1938. Place, Victor . Ninive et l'Assyrie . 3 vols. Paris, 1867–1870. Description of...

Environmental Archaeology

Environmental Archaeology   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
7,069 words

...that climatic change had played a major role in the rise and fall of civilizations in the Near East. For example, he claimed that purported desiccation in early postglacial times had forced people to congregate in river valleys, where they began to domesticate plants and animals. Similarly, he believed that the abandonment and desertification of Palestine in the Late Byzantine period were a result of desiccation, just as he claimed periodic nomadic eruptions from Central Asia could be explained by climate. Climate became the engine of history and with...

Gardens

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
5,939 words
Illustration(s):
1

...; Sidon ; Lachish .] Xenophon's description of Cyrus the Younger's garden at Sardis ( c. 407 bce ), is definitive: fine trees set in even rows with clean angles, a place rich in fruit and pleasant scents—and cultivated by the satrap himself ( Oeconomicus 4.20–24). Lydian gardens are later a part of the classical topos for luxury (cf. Athenaeus, Deipnosophists ). The remains of a Lydian stone pavilion have been found on the terraced site presumed to be the palace of Croesus. The Achaemenid kings rebuilt the Median capitol of Ecbatana in the Zagros...

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