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Pakistan

Asia's great underachiever. Democracy has yet to take hold and now the country is under attack from terrorists. Pakistan has four main geographical regions. First, in the far ...

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World Maps

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...Pakistan Physical map Political map Karachi...

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World Flags

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

... Pakistan's flag was adopted in 1947, when the country became independent from Britain. The colour green, the crescent Moon and the five-pointed star are all traditional symbols of Islam. The white stripe represents the other religions in Pakistan...

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The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...religion and this is also reflected in the name of its capital, Islāmābād . Pakistan was divided into two wings, separated by nearly 1 000 miles (1 600 km) of Indian territory, at the time of its creation in 1947 : West Pakistan (now Pakistan) and East Pakistan, which became Bangladesh in 1971 . The 1933 name did not include Bengal which was to become East Pakistan...

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Christopher Candland

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,054 words

...but to be a friend can be fatal. Pakistan's reputation in nuclear nonproliferation is poor. Pakistani metallurgist A. Q. Khan stole and sold enrichment and missile technology. Pakistan has not signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. The US “War on Terror” has strained US-Pakistani relations severely. Bombing by unmanned aerial drones and the activities of US Special Operations forces in Pakistan violate Pakistani sovereignty and international law and are deeply unpopular in Pakistan. Each of Pakistan's four provincial assemblies and the...

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Christopher Candland

The Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,049 words

...in nuclear nonproliferation is poor. Pakistani metallurgist A. Q. Khan stole and sold enrichment and missile technology. Pakistan has not signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. The US “War on Terror” has strained US–Pakistani relations severely. Bombing by unmanned aerial drones and the activities of US Special Operations Forces in Pakistan violate Pakistani sovereignty and international law and are deeply unpopular in Pakistan. Each of Pakistan's four provincial assemblies and the National Assembly have condemned the US bombings and covert...

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A Dictionary of British History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
166 words

... was created, and achieved its independence, on 14 August 1947 as the result of a partition of British India. It consisted of the former provinces of Sindh, Baluchistan, and the North‐West Frontier together with the east of Bengal and the west of Punjab. These were all regions with a Muslim‐majority population. M. A. Jinnah , the leader of the Muslim League, was the principal advocate of Pakistan. Chaotic conditions at the time of partition also led to at least half a million people being killed in ferocious ‘communal’ violence. Since independence...

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A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
848 words
Illustration(s):
1

...The two wings of Pakistan were separated by a thousand miles of Indian territory. Allegations by the Bengalis in East Pakistan against West Pakistan’s disproportionate share of the state’s assets led to demands by the Awami League, led by Mujibur Rahman , for regional autonomy. In the ensuing civil war ( 1971 ), the Bengali dissidents defeated a Pakistani army, with Indian help, and established the new state of Bangladesh ( 1971 ). In 1970 the first ever general election brought to power Zulfikar Ali Bhutto , leader of the Pakistan People’s Party, who...

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
9,879 words
Illustration(s):
3

...an excellent chapter titled “Pakistan as an Islamic State.” Syed, Anwar H. Pakistan: Islam, Politics, and National Solidarity . New York: Praeger, 1982. Examines the role of Islam in Pakistan's political and ideological controversies. Talbott, Ian . Pakistan: A Modern History . Enlarged and updated. London: Hurst, 2005. An excellent introduction. Wolpert, Stanley . Zulfi Bhutto of Pakistan . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993. A biography of Pakistan's charismatic Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto and a study of Pakistani politics in the Bhutto era....

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
929 words
Illustration(s):
4

...In the 1940s the League's leader, Muhammad Ali Jinnah , promoted the idea of a separate Muslim state, to be named Pakistan. Politics British India achieved independence in 1947 and was divided into Pakistan and India. Slaughter ensued as Hindus and Sikhs fled Pakistan and Muslims fled India. Pakistan originally consisted of two parts, W and E, but following a civil war the E split in 1971 to become Bangladesh. In 1948–9 and 1965 , Pakistan and India fought costly but inconclusive wars over Kashmir . Elections in 1988 led to Benazir Bhutto becoming...

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A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,001 words
Illustration(s):
2

...million people do not have access to electricity. Pakistan also has large deposits of rock salt, limestone, and other minerals but these have been little exploited. Contemporary politics Pakistan has frequently been embroiled in serious disputes with its neighbours, particularly India. In 1998 , Pakistan responded to Indian nuclear tests with six tests of its own (Pakistan is the world’s only nuclear-armed Islamic state). The most dangerous issue is Kashmir, a territory whose sovereignty Pakistan disputes with India. For many years, this has involved...

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Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
4,685 words
Illustration(s):
1

...for very long or been widely accepted. Pakistan's history has been one of periods of uneasy civilian rule interspersed by military dictatorship. Factional Rivalries and Tensions with East Pakistan. Between 1951 and 1958 , Pakistan experienced a period of civilian government beset by factional rivalries and continuing tension between West Pakistan and East Bengal. Bengalis felt that the wealth of East Bengal, renamed East Pakistan in 1955—wealth that came mostly from the export of jute—was used to benefit West Pakistan at the expense of East Bengal. In...

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Rizwan Hussain

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
4,294 words

... . The Islamic Republic of Pakistan (Islāmī Jumhūrīya-e Pākistān), with a population of 193,238,868 million ( 2013 estimate), is the second largest Muslim state in the world, after Indonesia. Pakistan came into being as a result of the partition of British India on 14 August 1947 . The Nature of Islamic Politics in Pakistan. The political history of Pakistan has been characterized by rivalries and differences between three main Sunnī parties. Intense rivalry has existed between the Deobandī-oriented Jamʿīyatul ʿUlamāʾ-i Islām (JUI) and the...

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The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,320 words

...command with the pretext to intervene yet again as the final arbiter of Pakistan's destiny. (See also Democratic Transitions ; International Debt ; Islam ; Nuclear Weapons .) H. Gardezi and Jamil Rashid , eds., Pakistan: The Roots of Dictatorship (London, 1983). H.A. Rizvi , The Military and Politics in Pakistan, 1947–86 (Lahore, 1986). Omar Noman , The Political Economy of Pakistan, 1947–85 (New York, 1988). Ayesha Jalal , The State of Martial Rule: The Origins of Pakistan's Political Economy of Defense (Cambridge, U.K., 1990; Lahore, 1999)....

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The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
2,490 words

... . When India gained independence from the British in 1947 , it split into two countries, with two Muslim-majority regions in the northeast and northwest becoming the nation of Pakistan; the western part later became another independent country, Bangladesh. Much of Pakistan thus shares features of the broader culture of the Indian subcontinent, but some aspects of Pakistani culture derive specifically from within its territory. Additionally, since Pakistan was formed as a homeland for Muslims, albeit envisioned as a modern, secular state, Pakistanis have...

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A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
2,032 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of around five million Hindus and Sikhs out of Pakistan, and the immigration of around eight million Muslims into Pakistan. Moreover, Pakistan contested its borders, as it competed with India over control of Kashmir. This has led to strained relations with India throughout its existence, and the conduct of three Indo-Pakistan Wars . In addition to these strains, the new state also suffered from the tension between the majority of the population living in East Pakistan and the important posts in government, administration, and the military being dominated...

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A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
186 words

... An Islamic republic located in South Asia and bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west and north, Iran to the southwest, and China in the far northeast. Roughly the size of Britain and France combined, it has ocean access via the Arabian Sea. Historically, Pakistan was home to the Bronze Age Indus Valley (or Harappan) civilization. Created as a result of the British India Independence Act of 1947 , Pakistan remains a largely Muslim country. There were initially two geographically separated parts, West and East Pakistan, but...

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
1,139 words
Illustration(s):
1

..., and Ahmed, A. The Management of Pakistan's Economy . Karachi, 1995. Baqai, M. , and Haq, M. , eds. Employment, Distribution, and Basic Needs in Pakistan . Lahore, 1986. Burki, S, J. , and Korson, J. , eds. Contemporary Problems of Pakistan . Boulder, 1994. Griffin, K. , and Khan, A. , eds. Growth and Inequality in Pakistan . London, 1972. Husain, I. The Economy of an Elitist State . Karachi, 1999. Hussain, A. Strategic Issues in Pakistan's Economic Development . Lahore, 1990. Nasim, A. , ed. Financing Pakistan's Development in the 1990s ....

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David Anthony Washbrook

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
287 words

...most to the precipitate withdrawal of the British under Lord Mountbatten . Since independence Pakistan has enjoyed a chequered history. Tensions with India have remained high and have led to three wars. East Pakistan seceded in 1971 , amidst much bloodshed, to form the independent state of Bangladesh . Full general elections were not held until 1970 and democratic institutions have remained at risk from military coups. As a leading Muslim country, Pakistan has been in a critical position since the military interventions of the US and UK in Iraq and ...

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
1,061 words

... . Formed from two geographically separate areas of India in 1947 as an Islamic nation, Pakistan has a small but growing collection of literature for children available. In 1971 the eastern section of Pakistan seceded and became Bangladesh. Pakistan is bounded by India, Iran, Afghanistan, and China; its primary cultural influences are its origin nation India, and its bordering Islamic countries Iran and Afghanistan. Nearly half the population is under the age of fifteen, so there is a large market for children's literature, if it can be developed in a...

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The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
5,523 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Pakistan, apart from the tribal territories, had come under British rule. R. E. M. Wheeler : Five Thousand Years of Pakistan: An Archaeological Outline (London, 1950) 5000 anni d’Arte in Pakistan (exh. cat., Naples, N. Mus., 1964) S. Quraeshi : Legacy of the Indus: A Discovery of Pakistan (New York, 1974) M. U. Malik and A. Schimmel : Pakistan: Das Land und seine Menschen Geschichte, Kultur, Staat und Wirtschaft (Tübingen and Basel, 1976) H. Jalal and others: Pakistan Past and Present (London, 1977) K. U. Kureshy : A Geography of Pakistan ...

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