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Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State, The

Subject: History

The Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State was the globally influential study of women's oppression by Friedrich Engels (1820–1895), a collaborator of Karl Marx (1818–1883) ...

Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State, The

Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State, The   Reference library

Donald R. Kelley

The Oxford Encyclopedia Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
1,426 words

... of the Family, Private Property, and the State, The . The Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State was the globally influential study of women's oppression by Friedrich Engels ( 1820–1895 ), a collaborator of Karl Marx ( 1818–1883 ) in the development of socialist ideas in the nineteenth century. Published in 1884 , The Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State followed hard on the heels of the popular Woman under Socialism ( 1879 ) by the German author August Bebel—an earlier description of the origins of women's...

Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State, The

Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State, The  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
The Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State was the globally influential study of women's oppression by Friedrich Engels (1820–1895), a collaborator of Karl Marx (1818–1883) in the ...
Family and Society

Family and Society   Quick reference

Ralph Houlbrooke

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,144 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... The Origins of English Individualism: The Family, Property and Social Transition ( 1978 ), and those who have found evidence of the strength of the ‘land–family bond’, as, for example, Zvi Razi, ‘The Myth of the Immutable English Family’, Past and Present , 140 ( 1993 ). Jane Whittle casts a critical eye on both concepts in ‘Individualism and the Family–Land Bond: A Reassessment of Land Transfer Patterns among the English Peasantry c. 1270–1580 ’, Past and Present , 160 ( 1998 ). Freedom of alienation was limited by (among other things) the widow 's...

African‐Caribbean Genealogy

African‐Caribbean Genealogy   Quick reference

Guy Grannum

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,002 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...cases of intestacy, guardianship, and wills; notices of applications for naturalization, and of the transfer and mortgage of property etc. Sessional Papers are the proceedings of local government, the colonial equivalent of the British parliamentary papers and Hansard . They comprise minutes and reports of the legislative, executive, and privy councils, and departmental reports, and include petitions to the assembly, manumissions (freedom) granted by the legislature, and details of local appointments. Local acts and ordinances include private acts of...

The Twentieth Century

The Twentieth Century   Quick reference

Brian M. Short

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,083 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...for the landed estates. Thus, the identification of individuals and the study of landownership are among the most obvious uses of the data. Indeed, the survey represents the most comprehensive set of property records ever compiled in the United Kingdom. With the addresses of owners given, it should be possible to make assessments as to the extent of owner‐occupation of land and housing, absentee ownership, and possible family or kinship linkages. Since the Valuation Books were primarily copies of the Rate Book, they will also compensate for the often...

Central Government, Courts, and Taxation

Central Government, Courts, and Taxation   Quick reference

R. W. Hoyle

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
7,753 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of officers, the impediment of justice, perjury—but also such varied civil matters as breach of contract, debt, defamation, and so on. A proportion of the cases of riot which came before it were actually about title, although, in theory, real property cases were barred to the court, a rule which was restated in 1552 and then adhered to. The majority of cases were between parties; relatively few were inspired by the state, but a handful of cases from the 1630s have coloured the whole history of the court. It was abolished in 1642 as an abuse of power; the...

Poverty

Poverty   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,179 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...reliance on the parish, with its complicated implications of expense, dependence, and unruliness, was of pervasive concern. The unit of social independence, and of national moral regeneration, was now the male labourer and his family. In contrast with the pauper, he was a ‘competent’ member of society, a condition which lent him political status. Although his lack of property fundamentally disqualified him from the government of society, this competency was the basis of more radical claims for political representation. Both William *Cobbett and more...

Kinship and Kingship: The Early Monarchy

Kinship and Kingship: The Early Monarchy   Reference library

Carol Meyers

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
20,793 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...had more in common with the Bronze Age traditions of city-states, writ large, than with a state composed of a citizenry all directly affected by and identifying with the state. At least during the period of the United Monarchy, when state expenses were met from extranational sources, the royal house did not reshape existing economic patterns nor fund its projects with surpluses extracted from the farmers. Indeed, Solomon's budgetary excesses were resolved by ceding property to the Phoenicians rather than by securing funds internally ( 1 Kings 9.11–14; see...

Folklore, Customs, and Civic Ritual

Folklore, Customs, and Civic Ritual   Quick reference

Charles Phythian-Adams

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,037 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and nightjars (which nest on the ground). Not unconnected, therefore, was the further terrestrial association between the Devil and the black dog. At the same level, too, were to be discovered the physical relics of previous onslaughts of evil: hag‐shot and elf‐shot. Access to, and the exploitation of, the forces abroad in the world for either medical, practical (e.g. recovering lost property), or evil purposes required special magical abilities. These tended to be restricted to limited categories of person defined either, in the case of women, by the stage...

Women

Women   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,844 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...an extensive set of arguments to show why the rights of men were seen as sex-specific ones, inappropriate to women. The emphasis on sexual difference which became so marked in the eighteenth century was closely connected with the equally marked emphasis on the contrast between public and private spheres: the expanding masculine public sphere of political, civic, and intellectual life, and of industry and commerce, formed a counterpoint to the feminine private sphere, which centred on family life and on the care and early education of children. This whole...

Contemporary Arab Ideology

Contemporary Arab Ideology   Reference library

‘Abdallāh Laroui

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
3,555 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...from Turkish tyranny and hears it said that those ancient lands of civilization fell precisely because of the Turkish occupation. When Montesquieu dissects oriental despotism, the Middle Eastern reader feels hatred for the Turkish usurper rise in himself. Still, he recognizes willingly that the Caliph, even in the brilliant periods of Muslim empire, governed according to his own good pleasure; conquered people were persecuted; the state had no end other than the exploitation of subject populations. He recognizes that property was precarious, commerce was...

12 The Economics of Print

12 The Economics of Print   Reference library

Alexis Weedon

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,076 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...The Economics of Print Alexis Weedon 1 The economic value of a book 2 The Stationers’ Company and early institutional structures of the British book trade 3 The origins of legal copyright 4 Nineteenth-century economic history and innovations in the book trade 5 Reducing the cost of paper 6 Mechanization of printing 7 The wages of compositors and cost of composition 8 Types of publishing firm 9 The 20 th century 1 The economic value of a book Four essential factors determine the economic value of a book: its worth as literary property, the cost of its...

Introduction to the Pentateuch

Introduction to the Pentateuch   Reference library

G. I. Davies

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
32,329 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...for ET). The laws deal with such matters as the administration of justice, state and temple property, service to the king, private property, borrowing, family relationships, bodily injury, and agriculture. Earlier and later legal collections from Mesopotamia are also known: the Code of Ur-Nammu (21st cent.), the Code of Lipit-Ishtar (19th cent.), the Code of Eshnunna (18th cent.), the Middle Assyrian Laws (13th cent.), and the Neo-Babylonian Laws (?7th cent.). Another important collection is the Hittite Laws (14th cent.: the surviving parts of all these...

Popular Culture

Popular Culture   Quick reference

Charles Phythian-Adams

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,654 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...properties, for example (see James Rattue , The Living Stream: Holy Wells in Historical Context (1995) ). The crying need for solutions to disease or physical handicaps, indeed, suffused the medieval belief system with its emphases on semi‐sacred, semi‐magical charms, and the tangible efficacy of saintly relics whether in private ownership or the very dust that lay on the shrine of a saint to which pilgrimage was made and where, nearby, wax replicas of each member to be cured were customarily suspended. Private or guild prayers and offerings to images of...

1 Esdras

1 Esdras   Reference library

Sara Japhet and Sara Japhet

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
23,313 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...the same structure may also be found in the list of returnees of Ezra 2 , headed by the priest Joshua and the descendant of David's line, Zerubbabel. However, Ezra 2 does not spell out these genealogical lines (this intentional omission is ‘corrected’ in 1 Esd 5:4–8 ), whereas here these people are identified in terms of their distinguished origins. The laymen consist of twelve heads of families, listed in a formulaic manner: ‘of the descendants of X, Y the son of Z, and with him N men’. This unified formula is modified slightly in two cases, the first...

The Principle of Movement in the Structure of Islam

The Principle of Movement in the Structure of Islam   Reference library

Muhammad Iqbal

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
11,677 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and the state is the family! As long as the full worth of the woman is not realized, national life remains incomplete. The upbringing of the family must correspond with justice; Therefore equality is necessary in three things—in divorce, in separation, and in inheritance. As long as the woman is counted half the man as regards inheritance and one fourth of man in matrimony, neither the family nor the country will be elevated. For other rights we have opened national courts of...

2 The Sacred Book

2 The Sacred Book   Reference library

Carl Olson

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,051 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...It is possible that the Rig Veda antedates the introduction and common use of iron, which means that its origin can be dated to around 1200 bc . According to internal textual evidence, the Vedas originated in northern India and spread to the Punjab and more eastern regions between c .1500 and c .400 bc . Members of the Angirasa and Kāṇva clans formed the bulk of its poets, who treated the hymns as the clans’ private property. In time, Vedic schools called Śākhās (branches) developed to control and protect the transmission of texts, which usually...

Leviticus

Leviticus   Reference library

Lester L. Grabbe and Lester L. Grabbe

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
22,756 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the land could not be sold permanently. Any sale was viewed really as a long-term lease which reverted back to the family in the jubilee year. The sale price was determined according to the length of time to the next jubilee, so that the purchaser was really paying for the number of crops obtained before it reverted to the original owners; the less time until the jubilee, the less was paid for the property. vv. 29–34 note that town property was treated differently and could be transferred without right of repossession, after a probation year in which the...

Towns

Towns   Quick reference

David M. Palliser

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,140 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...helped to develop the modern town‐planning movement. The period between the world wars, however, was ushered in by the 1919 Housing Act, which introduced state subsidies both for private houses and for local authorities’ council housing : and the twenty years following saw the building of 4 million new houses, many of them semi‐detached, in sprawling new suburbs or in ‘ribbon development’ along main roads. These were the houses mocked by Osbert Lancaster as ‘by‐pass variegated’, in which he invites us to admire ‘the skill with which the houses are...

Sensibility

Sensibility   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
7,039 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in the same culture. He opposed the sexual double standard by calling for ‘male chastity’, and he urged the replacing of the gamut of ‘coarse’ public behaviour with the manners of reformed gentlemen. Though eighteenth-century religion may have contributed to the modification of the public manners of men, the historian John Pocock believes that the new mobile forms of property entailed the ‘construction of a new image of social personality’, based ‘upon the exchange of forms of mobile property and upon modes of consciousness suited to a world of moving...

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