You are looking at 1-20 of 60 entries  for:

  • All: Ocean-Atmosphere Coupling x
clear all

View:

Overview

Ocean-Atmosphere Coupling

Ocean-atmosphere coupling is a concept of climate dynamics essential for understanding a large number of climate phenomena including the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and climate ...

Ocean-Atmosphere Coupling

Ocean-Atmosphere Coupling   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,707 words
Illustration(s):
3

...-Atmosphere Coupling Ocean-atmosphere coupling is a concept of climate dynamics essential for understanding a large number of climate phenomena including the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and climate variability on multidecadal timescales. The concept originated in the work of Bjerknes ( 1964 , 1972 ) and Wyrtki ( 1973 , 1974 ). Understanding ocean-atmosphere coupling is critical for predicting changes in global temperature patterns and climate variability with global warming. The idea behind active ocean-atmosphere coupling is straightforward: a...

Ocean–atmosphere Coupling

Ocean–atmosphere Coupling   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...–atmosphere Coupling [ This article provides a technical treatment of the subject intended for readers at an advanced level. For lower-level discussions of climate models , see Climate Models .] The atmosphere and ocean form a complex nonlinear system coupled through the exchange of properties across the sea surface. The exchanges of interest here are those directly affecting the system's dynamics and thermodynamics; namely, the surface fluxes of heat, momentum, and fresh water. The coupling arises because these fluxes both depend on and influence the...

Ocean-Atmosphere Coupling

Ocean-Atmosphere Coupling  

Ocean-atmosphere coupling is a concept of climate dynamics essential for understanding a large number of climate phenomena including the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and climate variability on ...
Ocean Disposal

Ocean Disposal  

Pollutants are introduced or disposed of into the ocean from point sources and nonpoint sources. Point sources are deliberate discharges from outfalls and ocean dumping. Oil drilling platforms, more ...
Atmosphere Dynamics

Atmosphere Dynamics  

By atmosphere dynamics is meant the set of physical processes that sets the atmosphere into motion and causes those motions to evolve. Apart from the gravitational tide, which is not ...
Ocean Dynamics

Ocean Dynamics  

Ocean waters flow over a continuum of spatial and temporal scales. Waves and small-scale processes with scales of meters and seconds coexist in an ocean basin with circulation features that ...
Earth rotation

Earth rotation  

Astronomical observations, mainly based on eclipses of the Sun, suggest a deceleration of the Earth's rotation by about 41 seconds of arc per century. Fossil coral growth rings indicate rotation ...
Modeling of Natural Systems

Modeling of Natural Systems  

The Earth's natural system encompasses the totality of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and geosphere and their interactions. Thus it spans very many variables, time scales, and spatial ...
coastlines

coastlines  

The line that separates land from sea. Also known as shoreline.
water Vapor

water Vapor  

The gaseous form of water, present in the atmosphere in varying amounts. It is an intermediate stage in the hydrological cycle. Water vapour in the atmosphere represents 0.01% of the total water ...
climate models

climate models  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A simulation of how the climate system works, usually using large and complex computer programs that are based on mathematical equations derived from knowledge of the physics that governs the ...
Younger Dryas

Younger Dryas  

A stadial or relatively cold period from about 12 900 to 11 600 years ago, which interrupted the warming of the Earth after the last ice age.
ocean–atmosphere interaction

ocean–atmosphere interaction   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...–atmosphere interaction ( oceanatmosphere coupling ) Oceans and the atmosphere constantly interact with each other; surface winds drive the ocean currents , moving warm water polewards and cold water equatorwards, and evaporation from warm oceans removes latent heat from the atmosphere. This latent heat is released when the vapour condenses with height. See Smith et al. (2006) J. Climate 19, 18 for a low-resolution coupled oceanatmosphere general circulation model, and Ciasto and Thompson (2008) J. Climate 21, 6 on the Southern Hemisphere. ...

Earth rotation

Earth rotation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geology and Earth Sciences (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...rapid irregular changes are meteorological or oceanic in origin and depend on the mechanical coupling between the atmosphere , oceans, and solid Earth, but they also affect the Earth’s moment of inertia. The major long-term change is due to the slowing of the Earth’s rotation by the tidal drag of the Moon and, to a much lesser extent, by the Sun and planets, most of it attributed to the M 2 ocean tide. Irregular fluctuations of largely unknown origin also occur, possibly associated with electromagnetic coupling between the Earth’s core and mantle . See...

geochemical cycles

geochemical cycles   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Earth

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography
Length:
2,662 words
Illustration(s):
2

...surface. The carbon cycle and its couplings The geochemical cycle of carbon (Fig. 2) is a fascinating story of the unique conditions on our planet during most of its history. Carbon dioxide, water, and other volatile substances are believed to have been degassed from the Earth in its early history of formation and cooling. Subsequently, two main processes were responsible for removal of carbon from the atmosphere of the early Earth: one was the deposition of limestones, made of calcium carbonate minerals, from ocean water by combinations of inorganic...

Ocean–Atmosphere Interactions

Ocean–Atmosphere Interactions   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,827 words
Illustration(s):
6

...surface water motions. Such circular flows, caused by a coupling of the atmospheric and surface oceanic circulations, are termed gyres. The gyres ensure that cold currents occupy the eastern sides of the ocean basins while warm currents are found along the western edges of the basins ( Figure 4 ). The effect is that the low surface temperatures in the eastern ocean basins tend to stabilize the atmosphere. Vertical motions are therefore discouraged because colder, denser air exists below warmer, less dense air. A decrease in low-level buoyancy occurs that...

Oxygen Cycle

Oxygen Cycle   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
1,928 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Mass balance calculations show that the feedback system is highly effective because of the fast responses of ocean oxygenation, phosphorus recycling, and sedimentary burial to variations in the O 2 level of the atmosphere–hydrosphere system. The phosphorus-mediated link between marine biological productivity and the abundance of O 2 at the Earth's surface couples the cycles of oxygen, phosphorus, carbon, iron, and sulfur (Figure 1). Such coupling is widespread among biogeochemical cycles and is often characterized by the existence of negative feedback...

Ocean Dynamics

Ocean Dynamics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
6,281 words
Illustration(s):
7

...zero, since measurements of the world's oceans do not show secular heat content changes. [See OceanAtmosphere Coupling .] Ocean Dynamics. Figure 5. Net Air–Sea Heat Exchange (W/m 2 ) for the Global Ocean.(A) Annually averaged and based on observed surface climatological fields. (B) Annually averaged and derived from the NCAR Climate System Model. (Reproduced with permission from Doney et al., 1998.) The bottom panel of Figure 5 shows the results of a numerical simulation of the oceanatmosphere–land climate system. While such simulations are at a...

carbon cycles

carbon cycles   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Earth

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography
Length:
1,570 words
Illustration(s):
2

...as that off the west coast of southern Africa, display an interesting ocean-atmosphere coupling which may be changed if the climate is perturbed as a result of anthropogenic changes in the carbon cycle. Most of the Earth's carbon resides in sedimentary rocks, such as limestone, but since this is largely a captive source, we shall concentrate on three sub-pools: living biomass, litter, and soil carbon. A distinction between herbaceous and woody plants, owing to differences in turnover rates, is often made within the living biomass component. Boreal,...

Modeling of Natural Systems

Modeling of Natural Systems   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,798 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to those more commonly seen in numerical model evaluations of greenhouse impacts and policy outcomes. See also Atmosphere Dynamics ; Climate Models ; Future Studies ; Global Warming ; Greenhouse Effect ; OceanAtmosphere Coupling ; Ocean Dynamics ; and Ozone . Internet Resource Biosphere 2. More information can be obtained from http://www.bio2.edu/ . Dickinson, R. E. Climate Sensitivity. In Issues in Atmospheric and Oceanic Modelling . Part A. Climate Dynamics, edited by S. Manabe , vol. 28, Advances in Geophysics, pp. 99–129. New York,...

View: