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Novaya Zemlya effect

A form of abnormal refraction, where ducting of light from the Sun along an inversion for extremely long distances enables an image of the body to be seen when several degrees below the ...

Novaya Zemlya effect

Novaya Zemlya effect   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

... Zemlya effect A form of abnormal refraction, where ducting of light from the Sun along an inversion for extremely long distances enables an image of the body to be seen when several degrees below the geometrical horizon. First reported from Novaya Zemlya in 1596 , it occurs in both Arctic and Antarctic regions. The term is sometimes mistakenly applied to any mirage phenomenon affecting the image of the...

Novaya Zemlya effect

Novaya Zemlya effect  

A form of abnormal refraction, where ducting of light from the Sun along an inversion for extremely long distances enables an image of the body to be seen when several degrees below the geometrical ...
North Pole

North Pole   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

.... The Circumpolar North: a Political and Economic Geography of the Arctic and Sub-Arctic . London: Methuen, 1978. Hydrographer, Royal Navy . The Arctic Pilot: Volume I, Comprising the Coasts of the USSR from Mys Belyy Nos, Proliv Yugorskiy Shar to Mys Yakan Including Novaya Zemlya, Zemlya Frantsa Iosifa, and All the Islands Eastward to Novo Sibirskiye Ostrova . 7th ed. Taunton, England: Hydrographer of the Navy, 1985. National Foreign Assessment Center. Polar Regions Atlas . Washington, D.C.: Central Intelligence Agency, 1978. Sage, B. The Arctic and Its...

Twentieth-Century Climate Change

Twentieth-Century Climate Change   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
4,113 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Zone of the Sudan. ” Geographical Journal 154.2 (1988), 181–198. Williamson, G. B. , et al. “ Amazonian tree mortality during the 1997 EI Niño drought. ” Conservation Biology 14 (2000), 1538–1542. Zeeberg, J. , and S. L. Forman . “ Changes in Glacier Extent on North Novaya Zemlya in the Twentieth Century. ” The Holocene 11.2 (2001), 161–175. DOI: 10.1191/095968301676173261. Zhang, X. , et al. “ Detection of Human Influence on Twentieth-Century Precipitation Trends. ” Nature 448 (2007), 461–465. DOI: 10.1038/nature06025. Andrew S....

Goltzius [Gols; Goltius; Goltz; Golzius], Hendrick

Goltzius [Gols; Goltius; Goltz; Golzius], Hendrick (Feb 1558)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
5,197 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and elsewhere, was based largely on the technical skill and virtuosity of his engravings, which influenced many artists, including the young Peter Paul Rubens ( 1577–1640 ). By 1596–7 examples of his prints had found their way to places as remote as the Arctic island of Novaya Zemlya, and in 1612 the English writer Henry Peachum recommended in The Gentleman's Exercise : ‘For a bold touch, variety of posture, curious and true shadow, imitate Goltzius, his prints are commonly to be had in Pope-head-alley’. 1. Life. 2. Work. 3. Cultural context and...

Nuclear Industry

Nuclear Industry   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
5,102 words
Illustration(s):
1

...been reported that, between 1966 and 1991 , eighteen reactors were dumped in the Barents and Kara Seas, six of them still containing fuel, together with thirteen thousand containers of solid radioactive waste. Eight such vessels lie in shallow water in Abrosimova Bay in Novaya Zemlya. The waste disposal situation in the territories of the former Soviet Union constitutes one of the most serious current environmental and security policy challenges faced anywhere in the world. The United States has tried to help. In November 1994 , 600 kilograms of highly...

Auks

Auks   Reference library

The New Encyclopedia of Birds

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
4,136 words
Illustration(s):
6

...nets and snares on a local scale, had little effect on auk numbers, but the use of firearms and commercial egg-collecting have caused the extinction of many colonies and one entire species. Excessive egg-collecting of Common murre eggs at the Farallon Islands, off California, caused the population to fall from about 400,000 birds in 1850 to just a few hundred by the 1920s; subsequent protection allowed a recovery to over 100,000 birds by the 1990s. The Thick-billed murre suffered a similar fate in Novaya Zemlya, Russia, where both adults and eggs were...

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