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Northumbria

An ancient Anglo-Saxon kingdom in NE England extending from the Humber to the Forth. The name comes from obsolete Northumber, denoting a person living beyond the Humber.

Northumbria

Northumbria   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
52 words

... An ancient Anglo-Saxon kingdom of north-east England and south-east Scotland extending from the Humber to the Forth. The name refers to persons living to the north of the Humber and has been revived in modern times by organizations, such as the ‘Northumbria Authority’, an area of police administration in north-east...

Northumbria

Northumbria   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
99 words

... The most northerly of the Anglo‐Saxon kingdoms. For more than two centuries the Humber was the major division between the Anglo‐Saxon peoples. The original Anglian migrants formed the two kingdoms of Bernicia (centred on Bamburgh) and Deira (in eastern and central Yorkshire). In the early 7th century Æthelfrith ( d. c. 616 ) united the two territories into one kingdom, which remained intact until the Danish conquest of 865. In the 8th century Northumbria was famous throughout western Europe for the scholarship of its monasteries ( see Bede, the...

Northumbria

Northumbria   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Local and Family History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
42 words

... . The most northerly of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. The original Anglian migrants formed the two kingdoms of Bernicia and Deira. In the early 7th century Aethelfrith united the two territories into one kingdom, which remained intact until the Danish conquest of...

Northumbria

Northumbria ([Ge])   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
76 words

... [Ge] A Saxon kingdom occupying the northeastern part of England. Established in the 7th century ad by the amalgamation of the earlier kingdoms of Bernicia and Deira. Following the conversion of King Edwin to Christianity in ad 626 , a number of monasteries were established in the kingdom, including Jarrow and Monkwearmouth. From the later 7th century Northumbria was an important and influential kingdom, especially through its schools, arts, monumental sculpture, and production of illuminated...

Northumbria

Northumbria   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
767 words

...the death of the Danish king Sihtric in York in 927 , *Æthelstan of Wessex conquered both parts of Northumbria , extending West Saxon hegemony north of the Humber for the first time. His united English kingdom did not survive his death in 939 , and Scandinavians reasserted their control over Northumbria , but in 954 *Eadred of Wessex expelled Eric Bloodaxe and brought Northumbria firmly within the united English kingdom. *Earls of Northumbria exercised local administrative control over the formerly independent kingdom on the king’s behalf. The...

Northumbria

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The Kings and Queens of Britain (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
115 words

... Northumbria was a composite kingdom, made up of Deira (between the Humber and the Tees) and Bernicia, which, at its greatest, stretched from the Tees to the Firth of Forth. It included much of Cumbria and the north-west and, for a short time, the kingdom of Lindsey. United first under Aethelfrith ( d. 616 ), its period of military predominance was short. Its literary and religious influence lasted much longer, but from 793 , when Lindisfarne was sacked, it suffered severely from Viking depredations. Deira and its capital York fell under Danish kings,...

Northumbria

Northumbria   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Northumbria . A kingdom of the Angles before the unification of England, from the Humber to the Forth. In the 7c, its leadership was recognized by the other kingdoms and its monasteries were in the forefront of European religious life. The Venerable Bede was a monk at Jarrow and the Lindisfarne Gospels demonstrate great skill in the illuminating of manuscripts. In the 9c the kingdom was overwhelmed by Danes and in the 10c the Scots (speakers of gaelic ) extended their border from the Forth to the Tweed, acquiring a province of speakers of Northumbrian English...

Northumbria

Northumbria   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... The Anglo-Saxon kingdom formed in the early 7th century, which included all England north of the Humber, and southwest and east Scotland to the Firth of Forth. For most of the 7th century it was the most powerful English kingdom, and its kings Edwin, Oswald and Oswy held the office of bretwalda . Its dominance was replaced by that of mercia . It was long noted as a centre of...

Northumbria, Kingdom of

Northumbria, Kingdom of   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
54 words

..., Kingdom of Largest kingdom in Anglo-Saxon England. Formed in the early 7th century, it included ne England and se Scotland up to the Firth of Forth. In the age of the historian Bede and the Lindisfarne Gospels , Northumbria experienced a blossoming of scholarship and monastic culture. Its power declined in the 8th...

Northumbria, kingdom of

Northumbria, kingdom of   Quick reference

A Dictionary of British History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
396 words

..., kingdom of From the middle of the 6th cent. to the 870s when the Danes took York, the Anglo‐Saxons who dwelt north of the Humber achieved their own institutional life, ruled by kings. The borders of their territories fluctuated widely. At its greatest extent the kingdom of Northumbria stretched from the Humber and the Mersey in the south to the Clyde and the Forth. Its political roots grew from two principal sources, the northern kingdom of Bernicia based on the gaunt fortress rock of Bamburgh , and the kingdom of Deira in the fertile vale of...

Oswald of Northumbria

Oswald of Northumbria (604–642)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
212 words

...church; Oswald granted Lindisfarne to Aidan, and from there, with Oswald's support, Christianity was established in Northumbria. Oswald was killed in battle by Penda , king of Mercia, in 642 ; his body was dismembered by Penda, but its parts became holy relics , and the cult of St Oswald was established (feast day: 5 Aug); it subsequently spread beyond Northumbria to all of England, and then to Ireland and the Continent (especially Flanders , Germany and Austria). R. Folz , “ Saint Oswald, roi de Northumbrie: étude de hagiographie royale ”, AnBoll ,...

Northumbria, kingdom of

Northumbria, kingdom of   Reference library

Henry Loyn

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
687 words

...both of which traced their origins to 6th-cent. rulers, bedevilled the politics of Northumbria. Bernicia was concerned with threats from the north from Picts and Scots, and Deira more entangled with the problems of the Mercian frontier. Even so in the 7th cent. under a succession of powerful rulers, Æthelfryth of Bernicia ( d. 616 ), Edwin of Deira ( 616–32 ), the brothers, again with Bernician origins, St Oswald ( 633–41 ) and Oswiu ( 641–70 ), Northumbria was a dominant force in English political life. Edwin was said by Bede to have ruled...

Siward, earl of Northumbria

Siward, earl of Northumbria   Quick reference

A Dictionary of British History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
68 words

...earl of Northumbria ( d. 1055 ). Of Danish descent and gigantic stature, Siward seems to have come to England with Cnut and had been made earl of Deira by 1026 . He subsequently served Harthacnut and Edward the Confessor , becoming earl of all Northumbria. In 1054 he led an expedition to Scotland, defeated Macbeth , and installed Malcolm Canmore on the...

Edwin , king of Northumbria

Edwin , king of Northumbria (633)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
110 words

... , king of Northumbria (d. 633 ) Ousted from the throne of *Deira by Æthelfryth of *Bernicia ( c .605 ), Edwin returned with *Rædwald ’s help to become the first Northumbrian *Bretwalda . *Bede says he conquered all Britain except *Kent . He was baptized in 627 , and was perhaps ambivalent as to Celtic or Roman practice. Edwin was killed at Hatfield by an alliance of Cædwalla of *Wessex and *Penda of *Mercia . Thor Ewing N. J. Higham , The Kingdom of Northumbria, ad 350–1100 (1993). D. W. Rollason , Northumbria, 500–1000:...

Tostig, earl of Northumbria

Tostig, earl of Northumbria   Quick reference

A Dictionary of British History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
91 words

...earl of Northumbria ( c. 1025–66 ), younger brother of Harold , who was briefly, in 1066 , king of England. With Tostig's appointment to Northumbria, his family seemed set to dominate the English kingdom. But he was driven out by a local rebellion in 1065 . He blamed Harold for not attempting to secure his reinstatement, and in exile raised a force which raided the English coast. Achieving little, he joined the army led by Harold Hardrada , king of Norway, and was killed at the battle of Stamford Bridge...

Tostig, earl of Northumbria

Tostig, earl of Northumbria (c.1025–66)   Reference library

David Richard Bates

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
144 words

...earl of Northumbria ( c. 1025–66 ), younger brother of Harold , who was briefly, in 1066 , king of England, and of Eadgyth , Edward the Confessor ’s queen. With Tostig ’s appointment to Northumbria, his family seemed set to dominate the English kingdom. But he was driven out by a local rebellion in 1065 . He blamed Harold for not attempting to secure his reinstatement, and in exile raised a force which raided the English coast. Achieving little, he joined the army led by Harold Hardrada , king of Norway, and was killed at the battle of...

Siward, earl of Northumbria

Siward, earl of Northumbria (d. 1055)   Reference library

J. A. Cannon

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
119 words

...earl of Northumbria ( d. 1055 ) . Of Danish descent and gigantic stature, Siward seems to have come to England with Cnut and had been made earl of Deira by 1026 . He subsequently served Harthacnut and Edward the Confessor , becoming earl of all Northumbria. In 1054 he led an expedition to Scotland, defeated Macbeth , and installed Malcolm Canmore on the throne. A man of great valour, he was said by Henry of Huntingdon to have lamented in York in 1055 that he was not dying in battle but ‘like a cow’, and arming himself from head to...

Morcar, earl of Northumbria

Morcar, earl of Northumbria (c.1040–c.1090)   Reference library

J. A. Cannon

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
196 words

...earl of Northumbria ( c. 1040– c. 1090 ) . Morcar was from the Mercian nobility, grandson of Leofric and his wife ‘Lady Godiva ’, and son of Ælfric, earl of East Anglia . The family was in rivalry with the Godwines. In 1065 Morcar and his brother Edwin joined a rebellion in Northumbria against Harold Godwineson ’s brother Tostig , and Morcar replaced him as earl of Northumbria. When Tostig returned with Harold Hardrada in 1066 , Edwin and Morcar gave battle but were defeated at Fulford , near York. Harold retrieved the situation by...

Oswald, St , king of Northumbria

Oswald, St , king of Northumbria (641)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
136 words

...St , king of Northumbria (d. 641 ) King and martyr; son of Æthelfryth of *Northumbria ; educated at St *Columba ’s monastery on *Iona . Crowned king of *Deira , Oswald desired to reunite Northumbria under Christian rule. He organized his armies under the standard of the Cross and was successful in his initial campaigns. Oswald then invited St *Aidan to evangelize his lands and assisted with establishing a see at *Lindisfarne and churches throughout the countryside. Oswald married the daughter of King Cynegils of *Wessex , and they...

Northumbria

Northumbria   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

... an ancient Anglo-Saxon kingdom in NE England extending from the Humber to the Forth. The name comes from obsolete Northumber , denoting a person living beyond the...

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