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Northern Alliance

A loose alliance of primarily Pashtun Islamic groups which took control of Kabul in 1992. It disintegrated in 1993, but the alliance was reformed in 1996 as its leaders retreated from the ...

Northern Alliance

Northern Alliance   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
180 words

...Northern Alliance ( Afghanistan ) A loose alliance of primarily Pashtun Islamic groups which took control of Kabul in 1992 . It disintegrated in 1993 , but the alliance was reformed in 1996 as its leaders retreated from the Taliban offensive. It controlled less than 10 per cent of Afghan territory between 1999 and 2001 . It received a further blow in early September when its leader, Ahmed Shah Masood , was killed. A few days later, the September 11 attacks changed the position of the Northern Alliance. As the principal opposition army against the...

Alliance Party of Northern Ireland

Alliance Party of Northern Ireland   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Irish History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
246 words

... Party of Northern Ireland , a centrist political party established in April 1970 , mainly by people not previously involved in politics. It has sought to develop a political middle ground for Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland, on a platform of reconciliation within the United Kingdom. Its strongest support has been in the middle‐class suburban areas, although paradoxically its modest success has played a major part in putting the Northern Ireland Labour Party out of business. It has made relatively little impact in the west of the province...

Northern Alliance

Northern Alliance  

A loose alliance of primarily Pashtun Islamic groups which took control of Kabul in 1992. It disintegrated in 1993, but the alliance was reformed in 1996 as its leaders retreated from the Taliban ...
Alliance Party of Northern Ireland

Alliance Party of Northern Ireland  

A centrist political party established in April 1970, mainly by people not previously involved in politics. It has sought to develop a political middle ground for Catholics and Protestants in ...
Religion

Religion   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,549 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...The structural foundations of religion in the British Isles are sunk in a terminological swamp. In 1736 William Warburton ( 1698–1779 ), a future Bishop of Gloucester, published The Alliance between Church and State , in which he set out the essential terms of the relationship. As he saw it, the ruler would ‘establish’—that is make official and supported by the civil power—the religion of the majority of his subjects; the two powers would then enter upon a compact defining the precise obligations of each. The Church of England, which assuredly...

Irish Local and Family History

Irish Local and Family History   Quick reference

Kevin Whelan

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,945 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and genealogical data. This created a more positive profile for local history among policy‐makers and administrators. In Northern Ireland, in the context of a divided society, local history was seen by educators as a valuable non‐contentious meeting ground for the two traditions, more conducive to creating a healthy sense of a shared past than an adversarial political history, with its insistent emphasis on divisive issues. Thus, in Northern Ireland local history has been incorporated into school curriculums, notably in the Education for Mutual Understanding...

5 The European Medieval Book

5 The European Medieval Book   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
9,862 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...as many books of hours for the English market were prepared in Bruges as were made in all of England itself. Very many MSS were sold locally too. The trade was highly organized and illuminators were required to be members of the painters’ and saddlemakers’ guild of Saint Luke. Alliances with England—including the marriage of Edward IV ’s youngest sister, Margaret, to Charles, duke of Burgundy—brought Edward himself to Bruges, when forced into exile in 1470–71 . He stayed there with a local businessman and major book collector, Louis de Gruuthuse ( c...

Richard III

Richard III   Reference library

Randall Martin and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,559 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...as he was promised, Richard rebuffs him. Buckingham flees to Wales. Richard hires James Tyrrell to kill the princes. Tyrrell recounts the murderers’ abhorrence of their deed, and reports the princes’ deaths. Richard reveals Anne’s death, Buckingham’s revolt, and Ely’s military alliance with Richmond. Rumours of Richmond’s plans to marry Elizabeth of York spur Richard to woo her for himself. 4.4 The surviving women, led by Margaret, agonize their griefs and curse Richard. He asks the Queen to woo Princess Elizabeth on his behalf. She resists his threats and...

Labour History

Labour History   Quick reference

John L. Halstead

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,401 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and English Politics 1884–1918 (1966). The Independent Labour Party ( ILP ), founded in 1893 at Bradford, was even more important. This socialist party, less London‐based than the other societies and more involved in the trade unions, was author of the successful ‘labour alliance’ strategy, which led to non‐Liberal, or ‘independent’ labour's 1906 general election breakthrough, and formation of the Labour Party. Here David Howell's exemplary British Workers and the Independent Labour Party 1888–1906 ( 1983 ) should be consulted. The ILP provided the...

28 The History of the Book in Italy

28 The History of the Book in Italy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,068 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...to be ‘new’ for more than a year at a time), or edition-sharing (where the name and mark of one publisher were substituted in press with those of another). This last habit in particular might cause migraines for those who have to catalogue such books, but it reveals substantial alliances within the Venetian industry, especially in the last part of the 16 th century, when the market for large editions of patristic authors experienced an upturn after the regeneration of monastic libraries following the Council of Trent and the creation of a network of seminaries...

3 The Ancient Book

3 The Ancient Book   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,942 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...explanation is that runes were developed from Roman writing in the 2 nd century ad by Germanic people who had had some contact with the Romans, to mark the donor or maker, ownership or function. Objects so marked became a good way to indicate group membership and forge alliances, something for which the Romans themselves at the same time used language. 8 China The earliest writing in China appeared c .1200 bc in Anyang, the last capital of the Shang dynasty ( see 1 , 40 ). It is sometimes said that this writing was stimulated by contact with...

Alliance Party

Alliance Party  

Formed in April 1970 to bridge the gap between unionists and nationalists in Northern Ireland. The party was represented at the Sunningdale conference (December 1973) and in the power‐sharing ...
Assessment and Qualifications Alliance

Assessment and Qualifications Alliance  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(AQA)The largest of the three major awarding bodies responsible for academic and vocational qualifications for 18–19‐year‐olds. It was formed in 1997 as the result of an alliance between three ...
Northern Ireland Labour Party

Northern Ireland Labour Party  

(NILP).Founded in 1924, as a socialist alternative to the largely sectarian politics of Ulster. It strove to remain neutral on the partition question, but in 1949—after the declaration of an Irish ...
Lega Nord

Lega Nord  

(Northern League, Italy)An alliance of northern Italian regional parties. Against the background of Italy's regional disparity in social and economic terms, its appeal is based on northern resentment ...
An tUltach

An tUltach  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
(1924– ), the journal of Comhaltas Uladh, a northern alliance of branches of the Gaelic League, founded to promote writing in Irish.
Seven Years War of the North

Seven Years War of the North  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
(1563–70)A bitter conflict that resulted from a collision of the expansionist aims of Denmark and Sweden in the Baltic and became entangled with the contemporary war in Livonia. Frederick II of ...
Jamiat-i Islami (Afghanistan)

Jamiat-i Islami (Afghanistan)  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Islamic Society. Founded in 1967 by Burhanuddin Rabbani. Ethnically Tajik government officially recognized by most governments even after the Taliban took control of Afghanistan. Major figures ...
Joint Council for General Qualifications

Joint Council for General Qualifications  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(JCGQ)Established in 1999 to provide a forum for discussion and decisions on joint strategy between the awarding bodies responsible for the awards of General Certificate of Secondary Education, ...
six

six  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Six Counties the counties of Northern Ireland, Antrim, Armagh, Down, Londonderry, Tyrone, and Fermanagh, which by the Treaty of 1920 were constituted as a separate province.Six Day War a war, 5 –10 ...

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