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National Association of Manufacturers.

The National Association of Manufacturers (NAM) was founded in 1895 to facilitate manufacturers' influence in promoting U.S. foreign trade and setting protective tariffs. Its ...

National Association of Manufacturers.

National Association of Manufacturers.   Reference library

Colin Gordon

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
345 words

...National Association of Manufacturers. The National Association of Manufacturers (NAM) was founded in 1895 to facilitate manufacturers' influence in promoting U.S. foreign trade and setting protective tariffs . Its leaders soon turned their attention to fighting trade unions. In the aftermath of World War I , the NAM's Industrial Relations Department assumed leadership of the “open shop” drive against organized labor. Anti-union southern firms and protectionist northern firms, especially in the metal trades, the textile industry , and shipbuilding ,...

National Association of Manufacturers

National Association of Manufacturers   Reference library

Colin Gordon

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... Association of Manufacturers The National Association of Manufacturers (NAM) was founded in 1895 to facilitate manufacturers’ influence in promoting U.S. foreign trade and setting protective tariffs. Its leaders soon turned their attention to fighting trade unions. In the aftermath of World War I, the NAM's Industrial Relations Department assumed leadership of the open-shop drive against organized labor. Antiunion southern firms and protectionist northern firms, especially in the metal trades, the textile industry, and shipbuilding, dominated the NAM...

National Association of Manufacturers.

National Association of Manufacturers.  

The National Association of Manufacturers (NAM) was founded in 1895 to facilitate manufacturers' influence in promoting U.S. foreign trade and setting protective tariffs.Its leaders soon turned their ...
Design

Design   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,178 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...'s partnership in the second half of the eighteenth century produced high-quality furniture for aristocratic clients in association with the king's architects, Sir William *Chambers and Robert Adam. Other London-based manufacturers catering for the luxury market used artists who were familiar with the new style. Benjamin Vulliamy ( 1780–1854 ), one of London's leading clock-and watchmakers, employed the young sculptors John Deare , Charles Peart , and John Rossi , as well as Bacon, to model figures for his clocks of neoclassical design, which were then...

Poverty

Poverty   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,179 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...cotton manufacturers. Thus the poor relief system linked the destitute with a much broader constituency of the poor, the great mass of ‘inferiors’ at the bottom of the social pyramid. In this sense, poverty was usually taken for granted as a natural state requiring neither redress nor explanation beyond providential sanction, and the particular theory of economic value on which it rested often went unstated or was left vague. Agriculture was still a major source of income for the labouring classes, although it had not employed a majority of the population...

Class

Class   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,846 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...calculator of profitable advantage. Similarly formative in the changing languages of politics and economics was the repression launched against the new urban radical associations like the *corresponding societies . Founded in London and elsewhere from 1792 onward, these were the first political associations to try to recruit ‘numbers unlimited’. The Seditious Meetings Act of 1795 , the suspension of habeas corpus, and finally the Combination Acts ( 1799–1800 ) [ see *gagging acts ] pushed these associations increasingly into a twilight zone of secrecy and...

Music

Music   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,344 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and manufacturers of northern industrial towns were not slow to emulate these sophisticated amusements. By 1823 a journalist for the burgeoning specialist genre of the *musical press noted approvingly that there were music societies in Manchester (one established as early as 1770 ), Liverpool, Bolton, Rochdale, Preston, Stockport, and Macclesfield. True, these new developments failed to inspire much in the way of lasting creativity, since no provincial composer emerged as a successor to Charles Avison ( 1709–70 ) at Newcastle, but the pace of...

12 The Economics of Print

12 The Economics of Print   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,040 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

..., the Printing Act lapsed and the value of English Stock declined, thereby eroding the control of the Stationers’ Company over the trade. Copy-owners feared the loss of protection of their copyright and an increase in *piracy , so they replaced the institutional control of the Stationers’ Company by trade agreements directly with members of *congers , associations of booksellers or printers who increased their power in the market by pooling their resources in a kind of joint-stock partnership. Such associations not only helped to ensure greater financial...

Publishing

Publishing   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,242 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...writers became manufacturers of components in the factory of literature. Such fragmentation undermined the integrity of writers, who came to bear only a marginal relation to the works they helped to produce. What they wrote was not properly theirs: it was designed by another and had value only as part of a larger whole. They had no vested interest in the completed work, for it was not a thing they could or might wish to acknowledge as their own. Writers were not authors but protean figures whose value lay in their ability to assume a number of authorial...

Domesticity

Domesticity   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,930 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...an outdoor setting for its celebration of the aristocratic family, so as to take in the estate as both home and grounds. The middle-class counterpart, on the other hand, identified the home as a single dwelling, along with its contents. Middle-class representations, typified by ‘Maternal Recreation’, featured in an 1816 trade catalogue of the piano manufacturer Broadwood, thus tended to focus on an interior as a site of domestic ‘recreation’. In this particular epiphany of middle- class domestic life, the experience of domestic relations is mediated by...

Industrial History

Industrial History   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,499 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...new streets, their upper ranges of mullioned windows casting light on the looms. The traditional dual occupation of the weaver–farmer flourished well into the Victorian period, and Edward Baines ( 1800–90 ) reported that as late as 1859 the number of woollen weavers who were outworkers equalled that of the men who worked at powerlooms in factories. However, the great rise in the national population meant that the domestic weavers were increasingly wage‐earners with no land, whose cottages were rented from the manufacturers. By 1850 the West Riding had...

Canadian Manufacturers' Association

Canadian Manufacturers' Association  

Part of associational trends of the late 19th century, the cma was rooted in protectionism. Antecedent organizations like the Ontario Manufacturers' Association (est. 1874) advocated the high tariffs ...
British National Formulary

British National Formulary  

A UK-published list of approved drugs and medications, listing their generic and proprietary names, pharmacological action, dosage, indications, contraindications, side effects, and reported adverse ...
National Book Awards

National Book Awards  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Founded (1950) by the American Book Publishers Council, American Booksellers Association, and Book Manufacturers Institute, and after 1976 sponsored by the National Book Committee for the year's most ...
Djelo Association for Promoting Craft Art

Djelo Association for Promoting Craft Art  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(Udruga za Promicanje Umjetnog Obrta Djelo, 1926–early 1930s)This association was established by Tomislav Krizman, a leading figure in the development of Croatian arts and crafts in the early 20th ...
ECMA International

ECMA International  

The European Computer Manufacturers Association (ECMA) was founded in 1961 and based in Geneva. “European” is to be taken as operating in Europe rather than European owned. The aims of ECMA are “to ...
Adelaide Sophia Hoodless

Adelaide Sophia Hoodless  

(1858–1910).Born in Brant County, Ontario, Adelaide Hunter married furniture manufacturer John Hoodless in 1881 and moved to Hamilton. In 1890 she became president of the city's Young Women's ...
ADI

ADI  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(Associazione per il Disegno Industriale) (established 1956)ADI, the Association for Industrial Design, has exerted a powerful voice in the promotion of the design profession in Italy for almost half ...
Albert Goodwill Spalding

Albert Goodwill Spalding  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(1850–1915)A US baseball player, a successful and specialist pitcher during the early years of the professional game, who established a company that produced baseball equipment for the national ...
motor industry

motor industry  

Manufacturing in Britain began during the 1890s in small workshops often in association with bicycle production. Business grew rapidly so that by 1913 British firms produced annually 34,000 vehicles. ...

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