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Napoleon III

Subject: History

(1808–73) Emperor of the French (1852–70). He was the third son of Hortense de Beauharnais stepdaughter of Napoleon I and Louis Bonaparte (1778–1846), brother of Napoleon I and ...

Napoleon III

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
92 words

... III ( 1808–73 ) ( Louis Napoleon ) Emperor of France ( 1852–70 ), nephew of Napoleon I . He twice tried coups in France ( 1836 , 1840 ). Returning from exile after the February Revolution ( 1848 ), he became president of the Second Republic. In 1851 he assumed autocratic powers and established the Second Empire ( 1852 ), taking the title Napoleon III. His attempt to establish a Mexican Empire under the Archduke Maximilian ended in disaster, and in 1870 he was provoked by Bismarck into the Franco-Prussian War . His defeat at Sedan led to...

Napoleon III

Napoleon III (1808–73)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
265 words

... III (or Charles-Louis Napoléon Bonaparte ) ( 1808–73 ) Emperor of the French ( 1852–70 ). He was the third son of Hortense de Beauharnais stepdaughter of Napoleon I and Louis Bonaparte ( 1778–1846 ), brother of Napoleon I and King of Holland ( 1806–10 ). After the fall of Napoleon I, Napoleon III began a long period of exile in Switzerland. On the death of Napoleon I’s only son, the Roi de Rome, in 1832 , he became Bonapartist pretender to the French throne and twice attempted to overthrow Louis Philippe , as a result of which he was deported....

Napoleon III

Napoleon III (1808–73)   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to Trollope

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
139 words

... III ( 1808–73 ) , French Emperor ( 1852 ) who lived in England after two unsuccessful attempts to overthrow the French monarchy ( 1836 and 1840 ); incited the Franco-Prussian War ( 1870 ); died in exile ( 1873 ). Trollope 's article (signed ‘An Englishman’) in Pall Mall Gazette , ‘As to the Need of Caesars’, was a response to Napoleon III's History of Julius Caesar . Trollope was strongly critical of Napoleon's militarism in Italy in 1867 ( Letters 1, 395) and characterized him as a man without wisdom or honour (Mullen 285). In Lord...

Napoleon III

Napoleon III (1803–73)   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
227 words

... III ( Louis‐Napoléon Bonaparte ) ( 1803–73 ). Son of Louis Bonaparte , the brother of the emperor Napoleon , and of Hortense de Beauharnais , daughter of the emperor's first wife. He became the recognized leader of the Bonapartes after his elder brother's death. In exile in England he wrote Des idées napoléoniennes ( 1839 ), a highly successful publication which sketched out a future Bonapartist regime and put forward his belief that the state should play a decisive role in running the economy. When in prison in Ham after an unsuccessful attempt...

Napoleon III

Napoleon III (1808–73)   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to George Eliot

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
108 words

... III ( Louis Napoleon Bonaparte ) ( 1808–73 ), emperor of France . He illadvisedly declared war against Prussia on a pretext on 15 July 1870 . He was crushingly defeated at Sedan on 1 September, capitulated, and lived in exile at Chislehurst, Kent, from 1871 until his death. George Eliot condemned his policy against Prussia, but with the Prussian atrocities daily evident and the Siege of *Paris endemic of the suffering of war, she shifted her allegiance. In 1879 , according to Edith *Simcox , she looked back on his ‘one bad action as a...

‘Napoleon III's History of Julius Caesar’

‘Napoleon III's History of Julius Caesar’   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to Trollope

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...Napoleon III's History of Julius Caesar ’ (review) . The Emperor-author links Julius Caesar , Charlemagne, and Napoleon as men who dramatically advanced civilization, implicitly including himself in this line. The paragraph here quoted [in French] illustrates the foolish, invidious comparisons of England with Rome. Pall Mall Gazette ( 7 February 1865 ), 2. AKL Anne K....

Napoleon III Emperor of the French

Napoleon III Emperor of the French (1808–73)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

... III Emperor of the French ( Louis Napoleon Bonaparte ) ( 1808–73 ). Napoleon III was born Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte , son of the great Napoleon's brother Louis , King of Holland, and Josephine's daughter, Hortense Beauharnais . He served in the Swiss artillery, reaching the rank of captain and publishing a textbook on artillery. The deaths of his brother and Napoleon's son left him Bonapartist pretender to the French throne. He tried to subvert the garrisons of Strasbourg in 1836 and Boulogne in 1840 . Imprisoned after the latter...

Napoleon III

Napoleon III   Reference library

The Canadian Oxford Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
75 words
Napoleon III

Napoleon III  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
(1808–73)Emperor of the French (1852–70). He was the third son of Hortense de Beauharnais stepdaughter of Napoleon I and Louis Bonaparte (1778–1846), brother of Napoleon I and King of Holland ...
War

War   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,919 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...government, arguing that the attempt to conquer the revolution by military force only had the effect of creating an ‘armed nation’ which then developed into an invincible military system. Napoleon's rise to power and subsequent career fitted very easily into this analysis. As late as 1815 the *Whig opposition in parliament demurred against attacking the restored Napoleon on the grounds that the ease with which he had overthrown the Bourbon monarchy indicated the public strength of his regime. There was some understanding here of the intensity war would...

Prints

Prints   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,058 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...pensioner in the later 1790s, though Gillray did not hesitate also to attack Pitt's new system of taxation. In the early nineteenth century, with the Napoleonic *wars [2] , caricature tended to direct its energies abroad, and though many of George *Cruikshank 's satires of *Napoleon are ribald and effective they lack Gillray's sharp edge. There is also a perceptible lessening of intensity among Cruikshank's contemporaries, like William Heath ( 1794–1840 ), and the end of the decade saw the virtual demise of the single etched and hand-coloured satirical...

33 The History of the Book in Poland

33 The History of the Book in Poland   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
4,081 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...in England were *pamphlets of the utopian socialist organization, the Grudziąż Commune in Portsmouth. The first Polish book printed in London, Antoni Malczewski’s Marja ( 1836 ), was printed at an English press using Polish types. Stanisław Milewski and Aleksander Napoleon Dybowski opened the first Polish printing office in London in 1837 to publish the journal Republikanin . Although the Polish community in Great Britain was small compared to that in France, it was politically very active, and published prolifically for its size, with output...

22 The History of the Book in France

22 The History of the Book in France   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,032 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...reintroduced censorship, reduced the number of Parisian printers to 60 (later increased to 80), and made authorization to print or sell books subject to a revocable licence or brevet . Tight control was exercised by a Direction de la librairie, which proved so zealous that Napoleon had to dissociate himself from it publicly. A more positive and longer-lasting creation was the future *Bibliographie de la France , reviving d’Ormesson’s plans. Characteristically, the *Imprimerie nationale (‘Impériale’ for the time being) grew enormously, involving more...

Louis Bonaparte

Louis Bonaparte  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(1778–1846) King of Holland (1806–10),brother of Napoleon I and father of Napoleon III. He accompanied his brother in the Italian and Egyptian campaigns, became a general (1804) and governor ...
Presidents of the Republic

Presidents of the Republic  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
[see also Republics]. There was no president of the First Republic. The Second Republic had one president, Louis‐Napoléon Bonaparte (subsequently Emperor Napoleon III), elected for a term of four ...
Hortense Eugénie de Beauharnais

Hortense Eugénie de Beauharnais  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Music
(b Paris, 10 April 1783; d Arenenberg, 5 Oct. 1837).French composer. The stepdaughter of Napoleon Bonaparte, she later married Louis Bonaparte, her third son becoming Napoleon III. She sang ...
Charles IV

Charles IV  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(1748–1819)King of Spain (1788–1808), son and successor of Charles III. Unable to cope with the upheavals of Napoleon Bonaparte, Charles virtually turned over government to his wife María Luisa ...
Eugénie

Eugénie  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
(1826–1920)Spanish empress of France 1853–71 and wife of Napoleon III. Throughout her husband's reign she contributed much to the brilliance of his court and was an important influence on his foreign ...
Haussmannisation

Haussmannisation  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
Name commonly given to the transformation of Paris undertaken, under the aegis of Napoleon III, by Baron Georges Haussmann (1809–91), prefect of Paris from 1853 to 1869. Under Haussmann's direction ...
Le Constitutionnel

Le Constitutionnel  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
After three changes of title in six months (1815), this newspaper was a flag‐bearer of Liberalism during the Restoration and the July Monarchy, but championed Napoleon III during the Second ...

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