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Mustafa al- Maraghi

Subject: Religion

(d. 1945) Egyptian modernist reformer and rector of al-Azhar. Called for social, legal, and educational reforms. Pursued an aggressive campaign to integrate modern sciences into ...

Maraghi, Mustafa al-

Maraghi, Mustafa al- (1945)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
59 words

...Maraghi, Mustafa al- (d. 1945 ) Egyptian modernist reformer and rector of al-Azhar. Called for social, legal, and educational reforms. Pursued an aggressive campaign to integrate modern sciences into al-Azhar's curriculum. Called for the exercise of ijtihad (independent reasoning) and reconciliation of different schools of Islamic law. Participated in international religious conferences. Desired a greater role for clergy in...

Marāghī, Muṣṭafā al-

Marāghī, Muṣṭafā al-   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

..., Muṣṭafā al- . Muṣṭafā al-Marāghī ( 1881–1945 ), was an Egyptian reformist and rector of al-Azhar ( 1928–1929 and 1935–1945 ). Shaykh Muṣṭafā al-Marāghī is the link between the reforms of his mentor Muḥammad ʿAbduh and such subsequent leaders of al-Azhar as Muṣṭafā ʿAbd al-Rāziq , ʿAbd al-Ḥalīm Maḥmūd , and Maḥmūd Shaltūt ; the last, his professed disciple, later transformed al-Azhar by compromising with the secular nationalist regime of Gamal Abdel Nasser . He was described by his contemporaries as a unique man of strong character and...

Mustafa al- Maraghi

Mustafa al- Maraghi  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(d. 1945)Egyptian modernist reformer and rector of al-Azhar. Called for social, legal, and educational reforms. Pursued an aggressive campaign to integrate modern sciences into al-Azhar's curriculum. ...
al- Azhar

al- Azhar  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Founded in 969/970, this Cairene university may have been named for the prophet Muhammad's daughter Fatimah “al-Zahra” (the brilliant), the eponymous ancestor of the Fatimids, founder of Cairo. ...
Shaltūt, Maḥmūd

Shaltūt, Maḥmūd   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,155 words

...and “heretical enemies of Islam.” For Shaltūt, a man famous for his innovative ten-volume Tafsīr al-Qurʿān (Interpretation of the Qurʿān) and for his resourceful Al-fatāwā (Formal Legal Opinions), this would hardly have been acceptable. See also Azhar, al- ; and Marāghī, Mustafā al- . Bibliography Shaltūt, Maḥmūd . Al-Fatāwā . Cairo, 1986. Shaltūt, Maḥmūd . Tafsīr al-Qurʿān al-Karīm. 10 vols. Cairo, 1982. Shaltūt, Maḥmūd . Ilā al-Qurʿān al-Karīm . Cairo, 1978. Zebiri, Kate . Maḥmūd Shaltūt and Islamic Modernism . Oxford and New York, 1993....

Shaltūt, Maḥmūd

Shaltūt, Maḥmūd   Reference library

Amira El Azhary Sonbol and Nael Shama

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,231 words

...reformers of al-Azhar, including shaykh s Rifāʿah al-Ṭahṭāwī, Muḥammad ʿAbduh, and Muṣṭafā al-Marāghī. Born in 1893 in the village of Minyat Banī Manṣūr (Buḥayrah Province) in Lower Egypt, Shaltūt memorized the Qurʾān as a child, entered the Alexandria Religious Institute in 1906 , and later joined al-Azhar, where he received the ʿālimīyah (erudition) degree in 1918 . After teaching at the Alexandria Religious Institute for some years, Shaltūt joined al-Azhar in 1927 under the auspices of Shaykh Muṣṭafā al-Marāghī. When al-Marāghī was fired by...

Azhar, al-

Azhar, al-   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,930 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Azharīs, seized the prerogative of naming the shaykh al-Azhar, and brushed aside the king's candidate, Muḥammad al-Aḥmadī al-Zawāhirī, in favor of Muḥammad Muṣṭafā al-Marāghī. But King Fuʿād soon turned the tables on al- Marāghī, a Ḥanafī and an admirer of ʿAbduh. Fuʿād suspended the constitution, reclaimed the prerogative of appointing the shaykh al-Azhar, and put in Zawāhirī. Nevertheless, the Azhar decree of 1930 and follow- up decrees in 1933 and 1936 implemented much of al-Marāghī 's program. Al-Azhar was pressed more firmly into the...

Aẓhar, al-

Aẓhar, al-   Reference library

Donald Malcolm Reid

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
2,059 words

...1926–1928 brushed aside the king’s candidate for shaykh al-Aẓhar, Muḥammad al-Aḥmadī al-Zawāhirī, in favor of Muḥammad Muṣṭafā al-Marāghī, a Ḥanafī and an admirer of ʿAbduh. But King Fuʾād suspended the 1923 constitution and reinstated al-Zawāhirī. Ḥasan al-Bannā’s founding of the Muslim Brotherhood (al-Ikhwān al-Muslimūn) in 1928 raised a fundamental challenge to the claims of al-Aẓhar and its ʿulamāʾ to speak for Islam. Both al-Bannā and later Brotherhood radical Sayyid Quṭb graduated from Dār al-ʿUlūm, which taught math, science, geography, and history...

Medina

Medina   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,217 words
Illustration(s):
1

...1990. Al-Manhal 54 (1992). Special issue: “Al-Madīnah al-Munawwarah.” Marāghī, Abū Bakr ibn al-Ḥusayn al- . Taḥqīq al-nuṣrah bi-talkhīṣ ma῾ālim Dār al-hijrah . Edited by Muḥammad ῾Abd al-Jawād al-Aṣma῾ī . Medina, 1955. Muṣṭafā, Ṣāliḥ Lam ῾ī . Al-Madīnah al-Munawwarah: Taṭawūruhā al-῾umrānī wa-turāthuhā al-mi῾ mārī . Beirut, 1981. Rashid, Sa῾ad al- . Kitābāt Islamīyah Ghayr Manshūrah min “Ruwawah” al-Madīnah al-Munawwarah . Riyadh, 1993. Rifa῾t, Ibrāhīm . Mir῾āt al-Ḥaramayn . 2 vols.Cairo, 1925. Sayyid, ῾Ubayd Madani al- . “ Oṭoom al-Madīnah al...

Ḥarām

Ḥarām   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...Yūsuf al- . The Lawful and the Prohibited in Islam. American Trust Publications, 1997. This English-language version presents a useful survey by a scholar of al-Azhar University, combining traditional sources and relating them to a wide spectrum of contemporary issues. Von Grunebaum, G. E. “Islam: Experience of the Holy and Concept of Man.” In Islam and Medieval Hellenism: Social and Cultural Perspectives , pp. 1–39. London, 1976. Zarkashī, Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh al- . Iʿlām al-sājid bi-aḥkām al-masājid. Edited by Abū al-Wafā Muṣṭafā al-Marāghī . Cairo,...

Azhar, al-

Azhar, al-   Reference library

Donald Malcolm Reid and Joseph A. Kéchichian

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,591 words

...of Muḥammad Muṣṭafā al-Marāghī. Still, King Fuʾād soon turned the tables on al-Marāghī, a Ḥanafī and an admirer of ʿAbduh, when he suspended the constitution, reclaimed the prerogative of appointing the Shaykh al-Azhar, and reappointed Zawāhirī to his post. Disappointed in the conservatism of Shaykh al-Azhar ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Tāj (1954–1958) despite his Sorbonne education, a hurried President Gamal Abdel Nasser looked for a replacement and found the reformist shaykh he wanted in Maḥmūd Shaltūt (1958–1963). When in June 1961 Nasser had Speaker Anwar...

Mahir, ʿAli,

Mahir, ʿAli, (1882)   Reference library

Dictionary of African Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,148 words

...in the fall of the Wafd government in 1937 . In this context, he also built close links with Shaykh Muhammad Mustafa al-Maraghi of al-Azhar, with whom he had worked in the early 1930 s on the formation of a religiously based, pan-Arabist, and anti-Wafdist movement. In October 1937 he was again appointed chief of the royal cabinet. His loose anti-Wafdist coalition experienced a crisis in late 1938 and early 1939 , when Shaykh al-Maraghi’s men tried to achieve a proclamation of Faruq as caliph, an idea of which Mahir disapproved and, in practice,...

Anṣār

Anṣār   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,218 words

...Blue Nile and Funj provinces in 1916 , and later in Kordofan and Darfur. In 1921 ʿAbd al-Raḥmān presented to the government a list of his provincial agents, including six in the White Nile, four in Kordofan, two in the Funj, four in the Blue Nile, three in Darfur, and one each in five other provinces, for a total of twenty-four. Many of the agents were merchants and tribal shaykhs rather than religious leaders. In 1917 Shaykh Muṣṭafā al-Marāghī, the Sudanʾs Qaḍī al-Quḍāh (judge of judges), was asked to give a verdict as to whether the Mahdī's writings...

ʿAbduh, Muḥammad

ʿAbduh, Muḥammad (1849–1905)   Reference library

Asaad Al-Saleh

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
1,972 words

...improving religious education at al-Aẓhar, which he constantly blamed for the lack of development in Egypt. Not objecting to modern sciences developed by non-Muslims, ʿAbduh himself utilized scientific theories, sociology, psychology, and other fields in developing his thought and in reading Islamic texts to make them easy to understand. One of the reported anecdotes about this methodology concerns a piece of advice he gave to his student Muḥammad Musṣṭafā al-Marāghī, who was then a judge and who later became the shaykh of al-Aẓhar. After ʿAbduh advised him to...

Faruq

Faruq (1920)   Reference library

Dictionary of African Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,176 words
Illustration(s):
1

...it to many salient nationalist themes current at the time. Central to this process was Faruq’s visible embrace of Islam. Aside from making many public appearances in Cairo mosques to lead Friday prayers, Faruq forged a close relationship with the rector of al-Azhar University, Sheikh Mustafa al-Maraghi, and courted the favor of the still nascent but increasingly influential Muslim Brotherhood. Faruq was popularly acclaimed as “the pious king” and the “renewer of Islam,” an image that was reinforced in the press. Two major, elaborately stage-managed...

Caliph

Caliph   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,691 words
Illustration(s):
2

...claims evoked rejection almost everywhere. When a Pilgrimage Congress met in Mecca in July 1924 , Ḥusayn failed to get it to legitimate his claims. The quickly ensuing defeat of the Hejaz by the forces of Sultan ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz of Najd put an end to the sharīfian pretensions. Leading ʿulamāʿ   in Egypt, particularly Shaykh Muṣṭafā al-Marāghī of al-Azhar University, worked to get their king, Fuʿād, chosen as caliph—a project that the king himself apparently backed. Although initial plans for such a conclave were announced in 1924 , opposition from many...

Chronology

Chronology   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
15,368 words

...father of the Turkish Republic 1881 Muṣṭafā al-Marāghī (d. 1945), Egyptian reformer and rector of al-Azhar 1882 Britain establishes protectorate over Egypt 1882 Ayatollah Ḥajj Sayyid Abū al-Qāsim Kāshānī (d. 1962), Iranian religious and political leader during 1950s national movement 1882 ʿAbd El-Krim (d. 1963), Moroccan leader of Rif Rebellion and Islamic reformer 1883 Birth of Islamic journalism in Russian Empire with publication of Tercüman by Gasprinskii 1883 School of Fine Arts established in Istanbul 1883 Halide Edib Adıvar (d. 1964), Turkish...

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