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Pervez Musharraf

(1943– ) Pakistani general and statesman; President (2001–8). Musharraf was born in Delhi, but his family moved to Pakistan after the partition of India (1947). Joining the army ...

Musharraf, Pervez

Musharraf, Pervez (1943–)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
189 words

..., Pervez ( 1943–  ) Pakistani general and statesman; President ( 2001–08 ) . Musharraf was born in Delhi, but his family moved to Pakistan after the partition of India ( 1947 ). Joining the army in 1964 , he rose to become army chief of staff in 1998 . In 1999 he ousted the Prime Minister, Narwaz Sharif, in a bloodless coup following a dispute over policy towards Kashmir. Promising a return to democracy, he ruled as Chief Executive until 2001 , when he declared himself President. A referendum in 2002 confirmed him in this office and the...

Musharraf, Pervez

Musharraf, Pervez (11 Aug. 1943)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
477 words

...Musharraf, Pervez (b. Delhi, India , 11 Aug. 1943 ) Leader of Pakistan 1999–2008 Born in Delhi, he was educated at Forman Christian College, Lahore, before joining the Pakistan Military Academy in 1961 . He visited the Royal College of Defence Studies in England, and in 1964 was commissioned to an artillery regiment as an officer. He rose through the army's ranks, and in 1993 became Director of the General Military Operations. He became a general in 1998 and became Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in 1999 . Musharraf overthrew the...

Musharraf, Pervez

Musharraf, Pervez   Quick reference

New Oxford American Dictionary (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
43 words
Musharraf, Pervez

Musharraf, Pervez   Quick reference

Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
42 words
Pervez Musharraf

Pervez Musharraf  

(1943– )Pakistani general and statesman; President (2001–8). Musharraf was born in Delhi, but his family moved to Pakistan after the partition of India (1947). Joining the army in 1964, he rose to ...
Kashmir

Kashmir  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
A disputed territory between India and Pakistan. In 1941, 77 percent of the population was Muslim. Three major political forces dominated: the National Conference, which wanted to join India; the ...
Principal Office Holders, Pakistan

Principal Office Holders, Pakistan   Quick reference

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
304 words

...Khan Dec. 1971 Zulfikar Bhutto Aug. 1973 Fazal Elahi Chaudri Sept. 1978 Mohammed Zia ul-Haq Aug. 1988 Ghulam Ishaq Khan July 1993 Wasim Sajjad Jan (acting) Nov. 1993 Farooq Ahmad Khan Leghari Dec. 1997 Wasim Sajjad Jan (acting) Jan. 1998 Mohammad Rafiq Tarar Jun. 2001 Pervez Musharraf Aug. 2008 Muhammad Mian Soomro (acting) Sept. 2008 Asif Ali Zardari Sept. 2013 Mamnoon Hussain Prime Minister Aug. 1947 Liaquat Ali Khan Moslem League Oct. 1951 Khawaja Nazimuddin Moslem League Apr. 1953 Muhammed Ali Moslem League Aug. 1955 Chaudri Mohammed Ali Moslem...

Pakistan

Pakistan   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
929 words
Illustration(s):
4

...once again. Later that year, a military coup brought General Pervez Musharraf to power. In 2001 Pakistan supported the US-led attack on Afghanistan, provoking a backlash by Islamists. Musharraf changed the constitution, increasing his powers. In 2003 India and Pakistan began to negotiate a peace settlement over Kashmir. In 2005 nearly 75,000 were killed in an earthquake. In 2006 Taliban and al-Qaeda forces operating from N Pakistan against Afghanistan became a major problem. In 2007 Musharraf briefly imposed emergency rule before resigning as army...

Wasim, Saira

Wasim, Saira (1975)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of American Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
447 words

...present a rosy picture of Pakistan and its politics; however, her art considers issues in a complex manner. In New World Order ( 2006 ), for example, Wasim painted the former President and Army General of Pakistan Pervez Musharraf . He is doll-like as he sits on the lap of the former American President George Bush . In this painting, Musharraf is miniscule in comparison with Bush, suggesting his powerlessness in the face of American dominance. For some, including Wasim, this reflects the US control of the world, from mass culture to governmental policies....

St Patrick's High School, Karachi

St Patrick's High School, Karachi   Reference library

Dominic D'silva

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...Wallis Mathias and Antao D'Souza , Danish Kaneria , and hockey players Jack Britto , O.B. Nazareth began their careers in this school. Among the host of illustrious alumni of St Patrick's High School are Sir Shahnawaz Bhutto , former Chief Minister of Junagadh State, Pervez Musharraf , L.K. Advani , His Eminence Cardinal Valerian Gracias, and many others. dominic...

Pakistan

Pakistan   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
848 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to similar tests by India. The military overthrew Sharif’s government in 1999 and placed him under house arrest: General Pervez Musharraf became Chief Executive, and then President in 2001 . His rule was endorsed by a referendum in 2002 . Musharraf suspended the constitution in 2007 but called for elections in 2008 ; Benazir Bhutto was assassinated while campaigning. After a delayed election, which his supporters lost, Musharraf was forced from office. In October 2008 , he was replaced as president by Asif Ali Zardari, Benazir Bhutto’s widower and...

Pakistan

Pakistan   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,001 words
Illustration(s):
2

... Pervez Musharraf , who deposed him in a bloodless coup. Initially the international community condemned the coup, but following Musharraf ’s support for the US-led war in Afghanistan and the struggle against al-Qaeda this criticism subsided. Musharraf survived several assassination attempts and developed a hybrid form of military and quasi-democratic rule. In 2002 he held a referendum to have himself appointed as president for five years. By 2007 , Sharif and Bhutto had returned to Pakistan ahead of legislative elections. Musharraf ...

Indo-Pakistan Conflict

Indo-Pakistan Conflict   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,223 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of underground shelters. Tensions between India and Pakistan remained high, and a full-scale war seemed a distinct possibility following the attack by six terrorists on the Indian parliament in New Delhi on 13 December 2001 . India blamed Pakistan. The Pakistani president Pervez Musharraf immediately condemned the attack. Nonetheless, the Indian army went on high alert all along the Pakistani border, and the Pakistani army responded in a similar manner. India recalled its High Commissioner to Islamabad on 21 December and cut travel links between India and...

Pakistan

Pakistan   Reference library

Rizwan Hussain

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
4,294 words

...army under the leadership of General Pervez Musharraf carried out its third bloodless coup in the country's then-fifty-two-year history by arresting the prime minister, Nawaz Sharif, and declaring a state of emergency. General Musharraf portrayed his regime as reformist and determined to deal with the political and economic problems faced by Pakistan. Musharraf promoted a moderate form of Islam. He enunciated the concept of “enlightened moderation,” which emphasized Islam as a moderate religion. The Musharraf regime supported the Taliban in Afghanistan...

Pakistan

Pakistan   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
9,879 words
Illustration(s):
3

...multifaceted social, political, and economic problems faced by Pakistan. The Musharraf Era. On October 12, 1999, the Pakistan army under the leadership of General Pervez Musharraf carried out its third bloodless coup in the country's then fifty-two-year history by arresting the prime minister, Nawaz Sharif, and declaring a state of emergency. General Musharraf portrayed his regime as reformist and determined to deal with the political and economic problems faced by Pakistan. Musharraf, an admirer of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk , the founder of the secular Turkish...

Pakistan

Pakistan   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
4,685 words
Illustration(s):
1

...The prime minister blamed the army chief Pervez Musharraf ( b. 1943 ) for the war—the war that Benzir Bhutto called “Pakistan's greatest blunder,” a sentiment that many Pakistani officials agreed with. The war was a military and a strategic defeat that saw universal condemnation of Pakistan and praise for India for refusing to escalate the conflict by crossing the line of control. It also led to a sharp increase in military spending in India, to the further detriment of Pakistan's competitive stance. Musharraf's Coup. The Pakistani army was acutely...

Women's Action Forum

Women's Action Forum   Reference library

Anita M. Weiss

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,173 words

...particularly in the realm of family planning; and countering suppression and raising public awareness by taking stands and issuing statements on events as they occurred. The government of Pervez Musharraf (1999–2008) was more responsive to WAF's recommendations. Although most WAF members criticized the government because it was a military regime, Musharraf's government nevertheless reinstated reserved seats for women in 2001 in provincial and national elections (a key demand of WAF), moved forward with a variety of microcredit schemes for women and,...

All-India Muslim League

All-India Muslim League   Reference library

David Taylor

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,168 words

...Sharif formed the core of the successful Islāmī Jumhūrī Ittiḥād (Islamic Democratic Alliance), which ruled until 1993. Subsequently, Nawaz Sharif and the PML–N led another coalition government from 1997 to 1999 and it was overthrown in a military coup led by General Pervez Musharraf. Musharraf himself chose another fraction of the League, the PML–Q, as a political front. In the May 2013 elections, Nawaz Sharif returned to power for a third time at the head of the PML–N. [ See also India ; Jinnah, Mohammad Ali ; Khilāfat Movement ; and Pakistan . ] Bibliography...

Pakistan

Pakistan   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
8,140 words

...reconciliation in Afghanistan following the ascendancy of the Taliban were foiled by the army's seizure of power. This takeover, led by General Pervez Musharraf ( b. 1943 ) occurred on 11 October 1999 , at a time when, after the skirmishes over Kargil Heights in the disputed territory of Kashmir, the relationship between India and Pakistan had seriously deteriorated. The Events of 9/11 and Their Aftermath Musharraf , unlike Zia , more like Ayub Khan , and much like other military dictators, promised a transparent system; he denigrated politicians and sought...

Kashmir

Kashmir   Reference library

Neil DeVotta

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,026 words

...in eventually encouraging both armies to withdraw from their forward lines. Thereafter Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf promised Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee that he would not allow his country’s territory to be used for planning attacks against India , and the two leaders agreed to settle all contentious issues, including Kashmir, bilaterally. The United States hailed this agreement. In 2004 and again in 2006 , President Musharraf suggested potential contours for settling the Kashmir dispute, with the latter proposal acknowledging that...

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