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Muhammad

Subject: Religion

(c. 570–632), Arab prophet and founder of Islam. He was born in Mecca, where c.610 he received the first of a series of revelations which, as the Koran, became the doctrinal and ...

Muhammad

Muhammad   Reference library

Concise Oxford Dictionary of Family Names in Britain

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Names studies
Length:
6 words

... 1881: 1. Muslim: see Mohammed...

Muḥammad

Muḥammad   Reference library

Walter Emil Kaegi

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
210 words

... (Μουάμεδ, Μωάμετ, etc.), prophet of Islam; born Mecca, tribe of Quraysh, ca. 570 , died Madīna , 8 June 632 . Among the most controversial aspects of Muḥammad's life and thought is the extent to which he had contact with Christians and was influenced by them and by Christian (and Jewish) ideas. In sūra 30 of the Qur'ān , titled al-Rūm, Muḥammad showed concern for and expressed optimism about the survival and welfare of Byz. in its war with Persia. Muslim traditions allege that Muḥammad dispatched messengers to various contemporary sovereigns,...

Muhammad

Muhammad   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
683 words

...miraculous foretelling of Muhammad's future prophethood in the sirah and hadith literature include recognition of Muhammad's prophetic status by Christian monks and a light shining from Muhammad's face and that of his mother during her pregnancy. Other miraculous accounts include Muhammad's Night Journey, or isra, from Mecca to the Temple Mount in Jerusalem and his ascension to heaven, or miraj. The Quran does not specifically refer to Muhammad's public ministry in Mecca, but the biographical sources record the emigration of Muhammad's followers to Abyssinia...

Muhammad

Muhammad   Quick reference

A Concise Companion to the Jewish Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
84 words

... The prophet and founder of the religion of Islam ( d. 612 ). After the rise of Islam, many Jewish thinkers reacted to the claims made for Muhammad by elevating the role and personality of Moses. Maimonides, for example, lays down as one of the principles of the Jewish faith that no prophet has ever arisen, even in Israel, greater than Moses, and thinkers like Bahya , Ibn Pakudah tend to speak of Moses as ‘the Prophet’, adapting this form from the Islamic designation of Muhammad...

Muhammad

Muhammad   Reference library

Garner's Modern English Usage (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Language reference
Length:
64 words

... ; Mohammed ; Mahomet ; Muhammed . How do you spell the name of the founder of Islam (who lived from 570 to 632)? The spelling Mahomet predominated from 1600 till about 1880 , when Mohammed became predominant throughout the English-speaking world. The retransliterated Muhammad overtook all rivals about 1945 and is now standard. Current ratio in print ( Muhammad vs. Mohammed vs. Mahomet vs. Muhammed ): 22:10:1.7:1 ...

Muhammad

Muhammad (c.570–632)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
516 words

...Sources (1983). R. Paret , Der Koran ( 7 1996). F. E. Peters , ‘ The Quest for the Historical Muhammad ’, International Journal of Middle East Studies , 23 (1991), 291–315. U. Rubin , ed., The Life of Muhammad (1998). A. Schimmel , And Muhammad is His Messenger: The Veneration of the Prophet in Islamic Piety (1985). al-Tabari , Muhammad at Mecca , tr. W. M. Watt and M. V. McDonald (1988). W. M. Watt , Muhammad at Medina (1956). ——  Muhammad at Mecca (1960). A. Yusuf Ali , The Holy Quran: An Interpretation in English ( 10...

Muḥammad

Muḥammad   Reference library

Mahan Mirza

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,518 words

...“Muḥammad as Prophet” (610–622), with what was to follow, “Muḥammad as Statesman” (622–632), in Medina. The hijrah was instigated by two rival tribes (Aws and Khazraj), who extended an invitation to Muḥammad to move to Medina to arbitrate disputes. In exchange, the tribes were invited to accept Muḥammad as God's messenger, believe in his revelations, and support his cause. Among the residents of Medina were also Jewish tribes, with whom Muḥammad felt a natural affinity because of their common ancestor Abraham, as well as their common belief in One God and...

Muhammad

Muhammad   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Mythology

... Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allah, the “Prophet” or “Messenger of God,” the man whose experiences led to the formation of Islam , was born in Mecca in c. 570 c.e. His mother was Aminah of the Zuhrah clan; his father was 'Abd Allah of the Hashim clan, who died before Muhammad's birth; Muhammad belonged to the tribe of Arabs known as the Quraysh. After a time with a wet nurse, young Muhammad was cared for at first by his mother, but Aminah died when the child was six and he became the ward of his paternal grandfather, 'Abdal-Muttalib, and later of his uncle, Abu...

Muḥammad

Muḥammad (571–632)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
613 words
Illustration(s):
1

...preceded the religious. Before his death in 632 , Muhammad had attempted to launch raids on the Byzantine borders. His successors, the caliphs of Medina , continued this policy which resulted in the great conquests. Muḥammad preaching against intercalation , from al-Bīrūnī's Chronology . 14th-c. Persian manuscript. Edinburgh, University Library. M. Ibn Ishaq , The Making of the Last Prophet , Columbia (SC), 1989. M. Lings , Muhammad: his life based on the earliest sources , Cambridge, 1991. “ Muḥammad ”, EI(E) , 7, 1993, 360-387. Jacqueline...

Muhammad

Muhammad (c.570–632)   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
285 words

...decades. Muhammad's followers believe that they were passed to Muhammad from Allah or God through the angel Gabriel. At the core of this religion was the doctrine that there is no God but Allah and His followers must submit to Him - the word islam means ‘submission’. Muhammad gained followers but also many enemies in Mecca. In 622 he fled to Yathrib ( Medina ). Muslims, later took this Hejira as initiating the first year in their calendar. Muhammad won more followers and organized rules for the proper worship of Allah and for Islam. Muhammad made war...

Muhammad

Muhammad   Reference library

The Islamic World: Past and Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
3,155 words

...Khadija died about 24 years later, Muhammad took no other wife. Divine Inspiration. Muhammad had his first revelation at about the age of 40, receiving a vision that he later identified as the angel Gabriel. The angel asked him to recite, but Muhammad did not understand the significance of the command. Gabriel repeated his request two more times, then declared Muhammad a messenger of God. Muhammad accepted his role and continued to receive revelations and transmit them to his followers until his death. After Muhammad's appointment as God's messenger, he...

Muḥammad

Muḥammad   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
12,267 words
Illustration(s):
3

...of the role of Muḥammad in popular Muslim piety. Watt, W. Montgomery . Muhammad at Mecca . Oxford, 1953. Readable scholarly analysis of Muḥammad's early life, based on original sources. Watt, W. Montgomery . Muhammad at Medina . Oxford, 1956. Noted Western Islamicist's analysis of Muḥammad's later career. Readable and accurate. Waugh, Earle H. “Following the Beloved: Muhammad as Model in the Sufī Tradition.” In The Biographical Process , edited by Frank E. Reynolds and Donald Capps , pp. 63–85. The Hague, 1976. Explains the role of Muḥammad as a paradigm...

MUḤAMMAD

MUḤAMMAD   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
294 words

...Muḥammad legislated that Jews, like Christians, should not be forced to embrace Islam, but like other “Peoples of the Book,” they should be permitted to practice their religion while suffering certain ignominies. See also Dhimmi ; Qu’ran . Karen Armstrong , Muhammad: A Biography of the Prophet (London, 1995). MuhammadIbn Ishaq , The Making of the Last Prophet: A Reconstruction of the Earliest Biography of Muhammad , translation of part of Sirat Rasul Allah , by Gordon D. Newby (Columbia S.C., 1989). Seyyed Hossein Nasr , Muhammad, Man of God ...

Muhammad

Muhammad ([Rel.])   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Reference and Allusion (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Language reference
Length:
157 words

... [Rel.] An Arab prophet and founder of Islam. According to legend, Muhammad summoned Mount Safa to come to him after being challenged to demonstrate his miraculous powers. When it failed to do so, he attributed this to the mercy of Allah, for if it had come it would have crushed him and the bystanders. If the mountain would not come to him, said Muhammad, then he would go to the mountain. > Mentioned when describing a situation in which a person or thing that you want is unwilling or unable to come to you, as a result of which you must make an effort...

Muhammad

Muhammad   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to English Literature (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature
Length:
186 words

... ( Mahomet ) The founder of the Muslim religion. He was born at Mecca c. 570 , and, according to Muslim belief, he was called by the angel Gabriel c. 610 to his role as a prophet. From time to time he imparted the revelations he received, and these became the Qur'ān . After fierce opposition from the Meccans, he moved to Medina in 622 (the hijra ). There he prospered both religiously, despite the opposition of local Jewish tribes, and on a secular level. After seven years of struggle Mecca surrendered, and by the time he died in 632 most of the...

Muhammad

Muhammad (570–632)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
192 words

... (or Mohammed ) ( c . 570–632 ) Arab prophet and founder of Islam . He was born in Mecca, where in c . 610 he received the first of a series of revelations, which became the doctrinal and legislative basis of Islam and which were written down c . 610–32 as the Koran. His sayings (the Hadith) and the accounts of his daily practice (the Sunna) constitute the other major sources of guidance for most Muslims. In the face of opposition to his preaching he and his small group of supporters were forced to flee to Medina in 622; this flight, known as...

Muhammad

Muhammad   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Companion to English Literature (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Literature
Length:
186 words

... ( Mahomet ) The founder of the Muslim religion. He was born at Mecca c. 570 , and, according to Muslim belief, he was called by the angel Gabriel c. 610 to his role as a prophet. From time to time he imparted the revelations he received, and these became the Qur'ān . After fierce opposition from the Meccans, he moved to Medina in 622 (the hijra ). There he prospered both religiously, despite the opposition of local Jewish tribes, and on a secular level. After seven years of struggle Mecca surrendered, and by the time he died in 632 most of...

Muhammad

Muhammad   Reference library

Dictionary of American Family Names (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Names studies
Length:
59 words

... US frequency (2010): 19076 Muslim: from a personal name based on Arabic muḥammad ‘praiseworthy’ (derived from ḥamida ‘praise’; see also Hamid and Mahmud ). This is the name of the founder of Islam, the prophet Muhammad (570–632). Compare Mohammad , Mohammed , and Muhammed . Some characteristic forenames: Arabic/Muslim Abdul, Abdullah, Ali, Bilal, Hassan, Ibrahim, Omar, Wali, Ahmad, Yahya, Yusuf,...

Muhammad

Muhammad (570–632)   Reference library

Karim KHAN

Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
History
Length:
1,286 words

...respect for others, helping the poor, protecting the helpless, justice and equity for all, promoting virtue, and preventing evil. Muslims take Muhammad as a model of moral perfection. Jabal al-Noor, or Mountain of Light, is the place where Muhammad used to pray and meditate. Under Muhammad ’s guidance, the small Muslim community (Ummah) that he founded in 622 turned Medina into a city-state. Muhammad framed a signed contract between the Muslims and the Jews of Medina, the Charter of Medina, which is the first of its kind in world history. The...

Muhammad II

Muhammad II (1429–81)   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
31 words

... II ( 1429–81 ) Ottoman Sultan ( 1451–81 ), considered to be the true founder of the Ottoman Empire . Muhammad captured Constantinople ( 1453 ) and made it the capital of the Ottoman...

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