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Mu'tazila

Subject: Religion

The Muʿtazilah were a major theological school of Islam that was renowned for holding reason (ʿaql) above scripture and other sources of religious knowledge and for its development of the ...

Mu'tazila

Mu'tazila   Reference library

The Biographical Encyclopaedia of Islamic Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy, Religion
Length:
370 words

...rejected Mu'tazilite teachings, but this did the school no immediate harm. More damaging was the assault of al-Ash‘ari and his followers on the Mu‘tazilite position. From the tenth century on, Ashariyya gained ground, and Mutazila was no longer the orthodoxy. Despite this Mu‘tazilite schools continued to flourish in Basra and Baghdad, the former surviving until the Mongol invasion in the thirteenth century. Though Sunni Muslims regarded the Mutazila as heretical, their ideas continued to influence Shi‘i thinkers in Persia. The objective of Mutazila was to...

Mu'tazila

Mu'tazila  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
The Muʿtazilah were a major theological school of Islam that was renowned for holding reason (ʿaql) above scripture and other sources of religious knowledge and for its development of the ...
al- Jāḥiẓ

al- Jāḥiẓ  

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Religion
Abū ʿUthmān ʿAmr ibn Baḥr al-Kinānī al-Fuqaymī, al-Jāḥiẓ (“goggle-eyed”) was a prolific ninth-century writer of Arabic prose works (ca. ah 160–255 / 776 [or 777]–868 [or 869] ce).Possibly of black ...
al-Balkhi, Abu al-Qasim

al-Balkhi, Abu al-Qasim  

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Philosophy
(d. 319 / 931)Head of the Baghdad Mu‘tazila, Abu'l Qasim ‘Abdullah b. Ahmad al-Balkhi al-Ka‘bi came from Balkh and spent most of his life in Baghdad. He was introduced ...
Abuʾl-Qāsim Maḥmūd ibn ʿUmar al-Zamakhshārī

Abuʾl-Qāsim Maḥmūd ibn ʿUmar al-Zamakhshārī  

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(1075–1144 (ah 467–538).Muslim grammarian and Qurʾān commentator. He was born in the Khwārizm province of N. Persia, where, apart from a period of study in Mecca, he spent most ...
Nasir Hamid Abu Zayd

Nasir Hamid Abu Zayd  

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Religion
Nasir Hamid Abu Zayd (b. 1943) is an Egyptianscholar whose views on the Qurʿān provoked controversy in the 1990s. He was born in a village near Tanta and during his ...
ʿAbd al-Jabbār

ʿAbd al-Jabbār  

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Religion
(c.935–c.1025 (ah 322–415).A leading Muslim Muʿtazilite theologian. He wrote many books, of which the best-known is al-Mughnī fī abwāb al-tawhīd waʾl-ʿadl.
Abū Hudhaifa Wāṣil B. ‘Aṭā’

Abū Hudhaifa Wāṣil B. ‘Aṭā’  

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(699–748 (ah 80–131).Leading Muʿtazilite theologian in Islam. He belonged to the associates of Ḥasan al-Baṣrī, though he separated from his views enough to start the school of the Muʿtazilites ...
Qadar

Qadar  

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Religion
(Arab., qadara, ‘have strength for, gain mastery over’).The decree of Allāh which, in Muslim belief, determines all eventualities. The Qurʾān reiterates constantly the power of God, who is the ...
Ashʿarī, Abū al-Ḥasan ʿAlī al-

Ashʿarī, Abū al-Ḥasan ʿAlī al-  

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Religion
Abū al-Ḥasan ʿAlī al-Ashʿarī was born in Basra c.873 ce and died in Baghdad in ah935 ce He was the descendant of a famous companion of the Prophet, Abū Mūsā ...
al-Ash‘ari, Abu'l Hasan

al-Ash‘ari, Abu'l Hasan  

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(260–324 / 873–935)Abu'l Hasan ‘Ali b. Isma‘il al-Ash‘ari was born at Basra around 260 / 873 and died in Baghdad in 324 / 935. He was a founder of ...
al-Razi, Fakhr al-Din

al-Razi, Fakhr al-Din  

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Religion
(1149–1209)Celebrated Islamic theologian, controversialist, and polymath.
theology, Muslim

theology, Muslim  

In Islam as elsewhere, dogma was the object of intense speculations and hence of intense controversies. In this field, in the Middle Ages, the fundamental opposition was not between Sunnis ...
Fiqh

Fiqh  

Conceptually, the human attempt to understand divine law (shariah). Whereas shariah is immutable and infallible, fiqh is fallible and changeable. Fiqh is distinguished from usul al-fiqh, the methods ...
Kalam

Kalam  

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Religion
(Arabic, speech)In Islamic philosophy, the processes of systematic theology, or more widely the general tradition of commentary and interpretation of Islamic doctrine, which may include adducing ...
Abbasid

Abbasid  

A member of a dynasty of caliphs who ruled in Baghdad from 750 to 1258, named after Abbas (566–652), the prophet Muhammad's uncle and founder of the dynasty.
theology

theology  

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Literally the ‘science of God’. Among the Greek Fathers the word came to denote either the doctrine of the Trinity (i.e. of God's Being as opposed to His dealings with the created order) or prayer ...
al-Balkhi, Abu al-Qasim

al-Balkhi, Abu al-Qasim (319)   Reference library

The Biographical Encyclopaedia of Islamic Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy, Religion
Length:
177 words

...from his essence. By the time Fakhr al-Din al-Razi left Rayy to debate with Mu‘tazilites in Khwarazm and Transoxania in the last half of the sixth / twelfth century, he found nothing remaining of the ideas of al-Balkhi, which had been replaced by the Mu‘tazilite school of Abu'l-Husayn al-Basri . Further Reading ‘Abd al-Jabbar, al-Maqalat , Bab dhikr al-mutazila , in Fadl al-i‘tizal wa tabaqat al-mutazila , ed. F. Sayyid , Tunis: al-Dar al-Tunisiyya li-l-Nashr, 1974. Gimaret, D. , La doctrine d'al-Ash‘ari , Paris: Cerf, 1990. Oliver...

Mu‘ammar al-Sulami

Mu‘ammar al-Sulami (215)   Reference library

The Biographical Encyclopaedia of Islamic Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy, Religion
Length:
208 words

...tazila. He was involved in a protracted controversy with al-Nazzam over the role of God in the universe. For Mu‘ammar, God does not really have much to do, since nature has its own character and runs independently of the deity. The extensive series of causes that lies behind natural change is capable of operating by itself. Accordingly God is not to be held responsible for what happens in the world, and it is perhaps this which led to the prolonged debate with al-Nazzam, who had the opposite view. Further Reading Valiuddin, M. , ‘Mutazilism’, in M.M. Sharif ,...

‘Abd Al-Jabbar, Qadi

‘Abd Al-Jabbar, Qadi (c.325–415)   Reference library

The Biographical Encyclopaedia of Islamic Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy, Religion
Length:
1,197 words

...the Mu‘tazilite doctrines, ‘Abd al-Jabbar corrects the views that are wrongly attributed to his school by rival schools. Most of ‘Abd al-Jabbar's works are not extant. In the Bayan mutashabih al-qur'an (Exposition of the Unclear Verses of the Qur'an), he discusses the verses which are difficult to understand literally and explain them in the light of clear verses and of reason. In the Fadl al-i‘tizal wa tabaqat al-mutazila (Virtue of Separation and the Generations of the Mu‘tazilites), he responds to the criticisms that were directed to the Mutazila and...

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