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Mozart effect

A finding, first reported in the journal Nature in 1993, that listening to compositions by Mozart increases scores on tests of spatial ability for a short while. In the original ...

Mozart effect

Mozart effect n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... effect n. A finding, first reported in 1991 by the French otolaryngologist Alfred A. Tomatis ( 1920–2001 ) in a book entitled Pourquoi Mozart? (Why Mozart?), and then supported in an article in the journal Nature in 1993 , that listening to compositions by Mozart increases scores on tests of spatial ability for a short while. In the original experiment, college students were given various tests after experiencing each of the following for ten minutes: listening to Mozart’s sonata for two pianos in D major K488, listening to a relaxation tape, or...

Mozart effect

Mozart effect  

A finding, first reported in the journal Nature in 1993, that listening to compositions by Mozart increases scores on tests of spatial ability for a short while. In the original experiment, college ...
spatial ability

spatial ability  

The capacity to perform tasks requiring the mental manipulation of spatial relationships, such as mental rotation, mirror drawing, map-reading, or finding one's way around an unfamiliar environment. ...
Jorma Elo

Jorma Elo  

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(b Helsinki, 30 Aug. 1961)Finnish dancer, choreographer, and designer. He studied modern dance before embarking on formal ballet training at the Finnish National Ballet School, with a subsequent year ...
rubato

rubato  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Music
(It.).Robbed time. A feature of perf. in which strict time is for a while disregarded—what is ‘robbed' from some note or notes being ‘paid back’ later. When this is done with genuine artistry and ...
transposing instruments

transposing instruments  

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Subject:
Music
Instruments which are not notated at their true pitch but (mechanically and without any effort on the player's part) produce the effect of that pitch. For example, the cl. is made in several sizes, ...
concerto

concerto  

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Music
(It.).Concert, concerted performance. A work in which a solo instr(s). is contrasted and blended with the orch. Earliest publication using name ‘concerto’ is Concerti di Andrea et di Gio. Gabrieli ...
bassoon

bassoon  

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Subject:
Music
(It. fagotto).Bass member of the double reed (ob.) family, pitched in C, with range from B♭′ upwards for about 31/2 octaves. Made of wood and with conical bore. Dates from 1660s. Came to prominence ...
symphony

symphony  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Music
(from Gk., ‘a sounding together’ Ger. Sinfonie, Fr. symphonie, It. sinfonia, Gk.‐Lat. symphonia).A term which has had several meanings over the centuries: (1) In 17th and 18th cents., sinfonia meant ...
Paul Taylor

Paul Taylor  

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(b Edgewood, Pa., 29 Jul. 1930)US dancer, choreographer, and company director. Having trained extensively as a swimmer, he took up dance while at Syracuse University (where he was studying art). In ...
trombone

trombone  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Music
(from It., large trumpet).1 Non‐transposing brass instr., derived from sackbut, of semi‐cylindrical bore and cup‐mouthpiece, generally equipped with slide which serves to extend length of the tube. ...
Raoul Dufy

Raoul Dufy  

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(1877–1953)French painter.After studying in Le Havre and Paris, he painted in a late impressionist manner until his meeting with Matisse in 1905. Dufy was strongly influenced by Matisse's painting ...
clarinet

clarinet  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Music
Single‐reed woodwind instr. with cylindrical tube developed c.1690 by J. C. Denner of Nuremberg, who, by adding 2 keys to the chalumeau, increased that instr.'s range by over 2 octaves. It was not ...
Süssmayr, Franz Xaver

Süssmayr, Franz Xaver (1766)   Reference library

Denis Arnold and John Warrack

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
175 words

... own works include a number of operas, the most successful of which reflects the influence of Mozart and in particular Die Zauberflöte . Der Spiegel von Arkadien ( 1794 ), to a libretto by Schikaneder that frankly set out to repeat Mozart's success, draws on similar ingredients in both story and music, to considerable effect and to great local acclaim in Vienna. Denis Arnold / John...

spatial ability

spatial ability n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...ability n . The capacity to perform tasks requiring the mental manipulation of spatial relationships, such as mental rotation , mirror drawing , map-reading, or finding one’s way around an unfamiliar environment. See also agnosia , cognitive map , Corsi blocks , Mozart effect , primary mental abilities...

Stadler, Anton Paul

Stadler, Anton Paul (1753)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Music (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music
Length:
157 words

.... Friend of Mozart, who greatly admired his playing of the ‘basset clarinet’ (a cl with a downward extension of 4 semitones) and wrote for him the Cl Trio in E♭ (K498, 1786 ), the Cl Qnt in A (K581, 1789 ), and the Cl Conc. in A (K622, 1791 ), as well as other pieces such as the cl and basset‐horn obbligati in La Clemenza di Tito which Stadler played at the f.p. in Prague, 1791 . The qnt and conc. were pubd in altered form to suit a normal cl, but in the 20th cent. Alan Hacker has played the orig. versions to good effect. Stadler and Mozart played...

rubato

rubato   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Music (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music
Length:
104 words

...is ‘robbed’ from some note or notes being ‘paid back’ later. When this is done with genuine artistry and instinctive music sensibility, the effect is to impart an admirable sense of freedom and spontaneity. Done badly, rubato merely becomes mechanical. The question of rubato in Chopin is particularly contentious, since its use in his music may be dangerously open to abuse. Accounts of his playing (and of Mozart’s) suggest that he kept the left‐hand in strict time, and added rubato with the...

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus (27 Jan. 1756)   Reference library

Julian Rushton

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
3,249 words

...dashed. Mozart was offered an organist's post at Versailles, and sensibly declined. The opera world was occupied by the famous ‘quarrel’ of the supporters of Gluck and Piccinni; Mozart received only a modest ballet commission ( Les Petits Riens : the title says it all). He did, however, absorb a new operatic style at its source, a lesson turned to good effect in Idomeneo . He gained few pupils, and composed in the popular concertante manner (Concerto for flute and harp). A wind concertante for the Concert Spirituel was not performed and is lost; Mozart did,...

bassoon

bassoon   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Music (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music
Length:
107 words

...Made of wood and with conical bore. Dates from 1660 s. Came to prominence as solo instr in 18th cent. Vivaldi comp. 39 concerti for it. Others to use it as solo instr incl J. C. Bach , Telemann , Boismortier and Mozart (K191). Modern instrs made by Heckel (Ger.), Buffet‐Crampon (Fr.), and Fox (Amer.). Often used for comic effect but its capacity for melancholy has not been overlooked by composers. 2. An organ reed stop of 8′ length and...

rubato

rubato   Reference library

Alison Latham

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
115 words

...time’). The practice in performance of disregarding strict time, ‘robbing’ some note-values for expressive effect and creating an atmosphere of spontaneity. Rubato is generally achieved in one of two ways. First, the pulse remains constant but expressive nuances are created by making small changes to the rhythmic values of individual notes; this method was widespread in the 18th century and into the 19th and is thought to have been practised by Mozart and Chopin . Second, changes in tempo are made to all parts simultaneously, the performer applying ...

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