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Montgomery Bus Boycott

Tired after an arduous day of sewing at the Montgomery Fair Department Store, Rosa Parks sank into the nearest available bus seat in the first row of the black section ...

Montgomery Bus Boycott

Montgomery Bus Boycott   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,912 words
Illustration(s):
1

...on Browder . Nevertheless, the importance of the Montgomery bus boycott is indisputable. By further popularizing and publicizing the modern civil rights movement, the Montgomery bus boycott was a focal point in the so-called Second Reconstruction. The Montgomery bus boycott illustrated how successful ordinary citizens could be at effecting change when they exhibited a unified front and reaffirmed the importance of the black church, the legal system, and direct action. As significant, the Montgomery bus boycott thrust Martin Luther King Jr. into the national...

Montgomery Bus Boycott

Montgomery Bus Boycott   Reference library

Black Women in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,028 words

...The Montgomery Bus Boycott . Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1997. Crawford, Vicki L. , et al., eds. Women in the Civil Rights Movement: Trailblazers and Torchbearers, 1941-1965 . Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1993. Garrow, David J. , ed. The Walking City: The Montgomery Bus Boycott, 1955-1956 . New York: Carlson, 1989. King, Martin Luther, Jr. Stride Toward Freedom: The Montgomery Story . New York: Harper and Row, 1958. Leventhal, Willy S. , ed. The Children Coming On: A Retrospective of the Montgomery Bus Boycott . Montgomery,...

Montgomery Bus Boycott

Montgomery Bus Boycott  

Tired after an arduous day of sewing at the Montgomery Fair Department Store, Rosa Parks sank into the nearest available bus seat in the first row of the black section ...
Women's Political Council, Montgomery, Alabama

Women's Political Council, Montgomery, Alabama  

The Women’s Political Council (WPC) of Montgomery, Alabama, an active civic group of professional and middle-class African American women during the mid-twentieth century, was committed to improving ...
Edgar Daniel Nixon

Edgar Daniel Nixon  

(b. 12 July 1899; d. 25 February 1987),civil rights leader who led protests against racial discrimination in Montgomery, Alabama, for fifty years. Born in 1899, Edgar Daniel “Ed” Nixon ...
Dexter Avenue Baptist Church

Dexter Avenue Baptist Church  

The Dexter Avenue Baptist Church, a center of civil rights activity during the late nineteenth and the twentieth centuries, was founded in 1877 in Montgomery, Alabama, by a small group ...
Southern Christian Leadership Conference

Southern Christian Leadership Conference  

Created in the wake of the Montgomery Bus Boycott in 1957 by Martin Luther King Jr. and his followers, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) coordinated and assisted local organizations ...
Alabama State University

Alabama State University  

Like most historically black colleges and universities in the United States, Alabama State University was created in the wake of the Civil War. In 1865, a convalescing Union soldier from ...
Ralph David Abernathy

Ralph David Abernathy  

(b. 11 March 1926; d. 17 April 1990),minister, civil rights activist, and close adviser to Martin Luther King Jr. An Alabama native, Abernathy was one of twelve children born ...
Birmingham Campaign

Birmingham Campaign  

The Birmingham Campaign, waged throughout 1963 and 1964, represented one of the turning points in the long-term success of the American civil rights movement. The shocking scenes of civil rights ...
Rosa Parks

Rosa Parks  

(b. 4 February 1913; d. 24 October 2005), civil rights activist.From the moment her photograph was first published in newspapers across America, Parks, with her quiet dignity, has been ...
Coretta Scott King

Coretta Scott King  

(b. 27 April 1927; d. 30 January 2006), activist, civil rights leader.The founding president of the Martin Luther King Jr. Center for Nonviolent Social Change in Atlanta, Georgia, Coretta ...
Alabama

Alabama  

Alabama became a new immigrant destination at the end of the twentieth century. Latino immigrants and migrants, primarily from Mexico and Central America, have brought dramatic demographic, economic, ...
Sit-ins

Sit-ins  

Initiated in early 1960 by college students in Greensboro, North Carolina, and Nashville, Tennessee, sit-ins spread throughout the country and galvanized young people to participate in the civil ...
desegregation

desegregation  

In the USA, the movement to end discrimination against its Black citizens. Many segregation laws were passed in the Southern states after the American Civil War, and they were supported by a Supreme ...
Martin Luther King

Martin Luther King  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
(1929–68)US Baptist minister and civil-rights leader. King opposed discrimination against Black Americans by organizing non-violent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations, notably the year-long ...
Civil Rights Movement

Civil Rights Movement  

A grouping devoted to political and social reform in Northern Ireland, led by the Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association. NICRA was founded in Belfast early in 1967 by a group ...
Women’s Political Council, Montgomery, Alabama

Women’s Political Council, Montgomery, Alabama   Reference library

Black Women in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,335 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Americans with regard to their treatment on Montgomery’s buses. Planned Bus Boycott On Thursday, 1 December 1955 , a woman named Rosa Parks left the Montgomery Fair department store, where she worked as a seamstress, caught the Cleveland Avenue bus, and refused to give her seat to a white man. The police promptly arrested her. Over the years, Parks had developed a reputation among bus drivers for her refusals to obey Jim Crow segregation laws. Parks had previously served as secretary of the Montgomery NAACP chapter and as an advisor to the NAACP Youth...

King, Martin Luther, Jr.

King, Martin Luther, Jr. (1929–68)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Literature (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Literature
Length:
94 words

...Martin Luther, Jr. ( 1929–68 ), Baptist pastor in Montgomery, Ala., as president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference was a leading spokesman of American blacks for nonviolence in the civil rights movement. Stride Toward Freedom ( 1958 ) tells of the boycott he led against the Jim Crow buses of Montgomery, Strength To Love ( 1963 ) collects sermons, and Why We Can't Wait ( 1964 ) treats both the Birmingham demonstrations of 1963 and his larger views on civil rights. In 1964 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace. He was assassinated...

Robinson, Jo Ann Gibson

Robinson, Jo Ann Gibson (17 April 1912)   Reference library

Black Women in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
790 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of the city buses. To begin, the WPC agitated to change seating practices and improve the conduct of the city bus drivers. In May 1954 , more than a year before the arrest of Rosa Parks , Robinson wrote to the Mayor of Montgomery to threaten a black bus boycott if conditions did not improve. After Rosa Parks’s arrest in December 1956 , Robinson was instrumental in getting the Montgomery bus boycotts off the ground. With the help of another Alabama State faculty member and two students, she printed 52,500 leaflets to get word out about the boycott. After...

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