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Mohammad Ali Jinnah

(1876–1948) Indian nationalist, Muslim leader, and founder of Pakistan. Born in Karachi, the son of a merchant, Jinnah was educated at schools in Karachi and Bombay ...

Jinnah, Mohammad Ali

Jinnah, Mohammad Ali (1876–1948)   Reference library

Stanley Wolpert

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
549 words

...; and Pakistan . ] Bibliography Ahmed, Akbar S. Jinnah, Pakistan, and Islamic Identity: The Search for Saladin . London: Routledge, 1997. Javed, Ajeet . Secular and Nationalist Jinnah . New Delhi: Kitab, 1997. Jinnah, Mohammad Ali . The Collected Works of Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah . Vol. 1. Compiled by Syed Sharifuddin Pirzada. Karachi: East & West, 1984. Wolpert, Stanley A. Jinnah of Pakistan . 3d ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. Standard biography of Jinnah. Stanley Wolpert...

Jinnah, Mohammad Ali

Jinnah, Mohammad Ali   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

..., Mohammad Ali . Mohammad Ali Jinnah ( 1876–1948 ),was the Quaid-i-Azam (“Great Leader”) and first governor-general of Pakistan. Born in Karachi, the eldest child of well-to-do Khojas, young Jinnah was sent to London in 1893 and apprenticed to a British managing agency. He was bored by business, however, and turned to the study of law at Lincoln 's Inn and also aspired to acting. Jinnah helped the “grand old man” of India 's National Congress, Parsi Dadabhai Naoroji, win a seat in the House of Commons, and with Dadabhai 's support joined the Indian...

Jinnah, Mohammad Ali

Jinnah, Mohammad Ali (1948)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
99 words

...Jinnah, Mohammad Ali (d. 1948 ) Also known as Qaid al-Azam (the great leader). First governor-general of Pakistan. A successful Bombay barrister; joined the Indian National Congress in 1906 and the Muslim League in 1913 , and was instrumental in drafting the jointly adopted Lucknow Pact ( 1916 ). By 1940 had declared India's Muslims a “nation,” not a minority; the demand for a separate, single Pakistan became his major focus. Lived long enough to preside over the birth of the new nation, but died before he could establish a secular democracy free of...

Jinnah, Mohammad Ali

Jinnah, Mohammad Ali (1876–1948)   Quick reference

Who's Who in the Twentieth Century

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History
Length:
276 words

..., Mohammad Ali ( 1876–1948 ) Indian nationalist, Muslim leader, and founder of Pakistan. Born in Karachi, the son of a merchant, Jinnah was educated at schools in Karachi and Bombay before qualifying as a barrister at Lincoln's Inn, London ( 1895 ). He returned to India in 1896 and established a legal practice in Bombay ( 1897–1906 ). Jinnah joined the Indian National Congress in 1906 . Elected to the Imperial legislative council in 1910 , he became a member of the Muslim League in 1913 and an organizer of the Indian Home Rule League. As an...

Jinnah, Mohammad Ali

Jinnah, Mohammad Ali (25 Dec. 1876)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
617 words

...Jinnah, Mohammad Ali (b. Karachi , 25 Dec. 1876 ; d. Karachi , 11 Sept. 1948 ) Governor-General of Pakistan 1947–8 Born into a prosperous merchant family, he was educated in Bombay and England, where he was called to the Bar in 1895 . He returned to Karachi in 1895 , and established a law practice in Bombay in 1897 . A fervent supporter of greater Indian self-government, he joined the Indian National Congress , which he represented as part of a delegation making its case in London in 1905 . Only gradually did he become specifically concerned...

Jinnah, Mohammad Ali

Jinnah, Mohammad Ali (25 Dec. 1876)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Political Biography (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
436 words

..., Mohammad Ali (b. Karachi , 25 Dec. 1876 ; d. Karachi , 11 Sept. 1948 ) Pakistani ; Governor-General 1947–8 The eldest son of a hide merchant, Jinnah was educated at the Sind Madrassa and Lincoln's Inn, London, where he qualified as a barrister. The future founder of Pakistan was first known as the ambassador of Hindu-Muslim unity. Indeed Jinnah only resigned from Congress in 1920 when he became disillusioned with the violence and communal passions unleashed by Gandhi 's Congress-Khilafat civil disobedience campaigns. The division widened in ...

Mohammad Ali Jinnah

Mohammad Ali Jinnah  

(1876–1948)Indian nationalist, Muslim leader, and founder of Pakistan.Born in Karachi, the son of a merchant, Jinnah was educated at schools in Karachi and Bombay before qualifying as a barrister at ...
Liaqat Ali Khan

Liaqat Ali Khan  

(b. 1 Oct. 1895, d. 16 Oct. 1951).Prime Minister of Pakistan 1947–51 Born in Karnal (Punjab), he studied at Aligarh, Allahabad, and Oxford, and was admitted to the English Bar in 1922. He returned, ...
Cabinet Mission Plan

Cabinet Mission Plan  

(16 May 1946)The last viable attempt to come to a peaceful solution to Indian independence and partition. The Indian elections of 1945–6 were won in the Hindu‐dominated constituencies by the ...
Muhammad Iqbal

Muhammad Iqbal  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(1876–1938)Indian philosopher, poet, and political leader. He took an active part in politics in the Punjab and was President of the Muslim League in 1930 when he advanced the idea of a separate ...
Muslim League

Muslim League  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
Political party founded in 1905 to represent the separate interests of the Indian Muslims, who felt threatened by the prospects of a Hindu majority in any future democratic system. The radical ...
Jawaharlal Nehru

Jawaharlal Nehru  

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Overview Page
(b. 14 Nov. 1889, d. 27 May 1964).Prime Minister of Union of India 1947–64Early careerBorn in Allahabad as the son of Motilal Nehru, he received a European education, and was educated in England at ...
Mahatma Gandhi

Mahatma Gandhi  

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Overview Page
Subject:
History
(1869–1948)Indian nationalist and spiritual leader. After early civil-rights activities as a lawyer in South Africa, in 1914 Gandhi returned to India, where he became prominent in the opposition to ...
Pakistan

Pakistan  

Asia's great underachiever. Democracy has yet to take hold and now the country is under attack from terrorists.Pakistan has four main geographical regions. First, in the far north is the Hindu Kush ...
India

India  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
The world's largest democracy has a rich and diverse culture. Now, it is also achieving more rapid economic growthIndia's vast territory can be divided into three main regions from north to south. ...
Muslim League

Muslim League   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
137 words

...in British India, achieve self-government, and cooperate with the All-India National Congress. Its first president, Mohammad Ali Jinnah , argued for creation of a separate Muslim province in Sindh and Muslim representation in Bengal and Punjab. In 1930 Muhammad Iqbal articulated the two-nation theory and the notion of Muslim self-determination. After the Lahore Resolution of 1940 , it articulated a demand for a Muslim homeland. Jinnah finally agreed to the two-nation theory, which ultimately became the basis for the creation of the state of Pakistan....

Jinnah, Fatima

Jinnah, Fatima (1893–1967)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
570 words

...a place of eminence in South Asian women's political and social history. Born in 1893 in Karachi, Fatima Jinnah was the youngest daughter of seven children and the closest to her older brother Mohammed Jinnah. Fatima Jinnah studied at the Bandra Convent in Bombay until she was nineteen. She excelled in her studies and in 1922 became the first female dental surgeon in South Asia. In the years leading to partition from India in 1947 , Mohammad Jinnah was involved in the struggle to create Pakistan as a Muslim state. Throughout this critical period, Fatima...

Muslim League

Muslim League   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...A. B. Muslim League Yesterday and Today . Lahore, 1948. Robinson, Francis . Separatism Among Indian Muslims: The Politics of the United Provinces’ Muslims, 1860–1923 . New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007. Saiyid, Matlubul Hasan . Mohammad Ali Jinnah: A Political Study . Lahore, 1953. Wolpert, Stanley . Jinnah of Pakistan . Oxford and New York, 1984. Hafeez Malik Updated by Clifton...

All-India Muslim League

All-India Muslim League   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,303 words

...Founded initially as a loyalist organization, the Muslim League a few years after its creation was taken over by a different group of Aligarh graduates, most prominently Muḥammad ʿAlī and his brother Shaukat ʿAlī, who emphasized Pan-Islamic themes on the one hand and cooperation with the Indian National Congress on the other. In 1916 the League leaders, including Mohammad Ali Jinnah , who had joined in 1913 , negotiated an agreement with the Congress that secured separate electorates in return for support for a common program of constitutional change. After...

All-India Muslim League

All-India Muslim League   Reference library

David Taylor

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,168 words

...Act. Founded initially as a loyalist organization, the Muslim League was taken over a few years after its creation by a new group of Aligarh graduates, most prominently Muḥammad ʿAlī and his brother Shaukat ʿAlī, who emphasized Pan-Islamic themes on the one hand and cooperation with the Indian National Congress on the other. In 1916 the League leaders, including Mohammad Ali Jinnah, who had joined in 1913, negotiated an agreement with the Congress that secured separate electorates in return for support for a common program of constitutional change. After the...

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