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Modernism

Subject: Philosophy

Islamic modernism—the reform of Islamic tradition through emphasis on the Quran and Sunnah to meet the needs of modern society, including its institutions and technology—arose in the ...

Modernism

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A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
20 words

... 1. See modern movement . 2. Style of the 1920s and 1930s described as Modernist . Weston ( 1996...

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The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Art Terms (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
121 words

... A broadly used architectural term and movement, tracing its origins to Le Corbusier 's ( 1887–1966 ) designs such as that for the ‘floating box’ (i.e. it was on stilts) Villa Savoye , Paris 1933 , the five main points of which were a grid, free plan, free facade, strip windows, and a roof garden. These features were adapted by Mies van der Rohe ( 1886–1969 ) for his seamless glass pavilions. In Modernist architecture there are no projecting features such as cornices , mouldings, architraves , or skirting boards. By the 1970s, however, Modernism...

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A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
254 words

...and Berlin , among other places. At the time modernism flourished academic geography remained a rather sleepy, conservative subject not much influenced by the radical ideas of the modernists. However, sixty years later, postmodernism could be said to have partly reprised modernism, with undoubted effect on the discipline. What is more, some geographers have studied modernism, especially in relation to its vision of what urban life could and should be all about. David Harvey , for example, suggests that modernism reflected a fin-de-siecle crisis of capital...

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The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
115 words

... . On the longest view, modernism in philosophy starts out with Descartes's quest for a knowledge self-evident to reason and secured from all the demons of sceptical doubt. It is also invoked—with a firmer sense of historical perspective—to signify those currents of thought that emerged from Kant's critical ‘revolution’ in the spheres of epistemology, ethics, and aesthetic judgement. Thus ‘modernity’ and ‘enlightenment’ tend to be used interchangeably, whether by thinkers (like Habermas ) who seek to sustain that project, or by those—the...

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A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
418 words

... See also modernity ; compare postmodernism . 1. ( modernisms ) In literary and cultural theory, a diffuse movement or tendency across the arts in the West which can be traced to the late 19th century, and was at its height from around 1910 to 1930. Some commentators link it to the disillusionment felt after the devastating experience of the First World War. Many argue that the movement persisted until at least the end of the 1960s; others see it as succeeded by postmodernism after the Second World War ( see also postmodernity ). Modernism...

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The Oxford Companion to Irish History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
235 words

... is an aesthetic movement related to the process of modernization . It is a complex and troubled response to the reality of rapid change. The emergence of modernism is often located at the end of the 19th century and encompasses art, literature, and architecture in particular. Modernism is internationalist in intent and challenges not only the past and tradition but the validity of the local and national. In Ireland, particularly after independence, modernism was seen as a corrosive influence on the attempt to create a national culture and was kept at...

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
195 words

... Twentieth-century movement in art, architecture, design and literature that, in general, concentrates on space and form, rather than content or ornamentation. In architecture and design, early influences were Bauhaus ( 1919–33 ) and individuals such as Walter Gropius and Mies van der Rohe . Modernism developed the use of new building materials, such as glass, steel, and concrete. While difficult to define and date precisely, the echoes of literary modernism can still be heard in late-20th-century fiction. The most recognizably distinct form is...

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A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
401 words

... Modernism is the generally accepted term to describe the sweeping changes that took place, particularly in the arts and literature, between the late 19th century and the beginning of the Second World War. There is, however, no clear demarcation by date, and although the term postmodern is increasingly used to describe changes since the Second World War, there are some who argue Modernism persists, and others who see its demise as having occurred much earlier. Roland Barthes , a French semiologist , saw Modernism as a pluralization of world-views...

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The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
131 words

... . The attempt, especially in the Roman Catholic Church at the beginning of the 20th cent., to reformulate doctrine in the light of contemporary philosophical and scientific research. Exegetes, the most distinguished of whom was Alfred Loisy , argued that the scriptures had to be treated simply as historical documents, and studied without reference to tradition or to the magisterium of the Church. Modernism was condemned by the Holy Office in the decree Lamentabili of July 1907 , and by Pius X's encyclical Pascendi the following Sept. The...

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The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
56 words

... Generally, any movement or climate of ideas, especially in the arts, literature, or architecture, that supports change, the retirement of the old or traditional, and the forward march of the avant-garde. More specificically, adherence to the ideas and ideals of the Enlightenment . This is the sense that gives rise to the contrary movement of postmodernism...

Modernism

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The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...edited by R. Ellmann and C. Feidelson ) remains valuable as an anthology of Modernist documents. Modernism ( 1976 , edited by M. Bradbury and J. McFarlane ) offers a comprehensive critical survey. Among the many studies available are H. Kenner's The Pound Era ( 1971 ), S. Schwartz's The Matrix of Modernism ( 1985 ), A. Gelpi's A Coherent Splendor: The American Poetic Renaissance, 1910–1950 ( 1988 ), and B. Bergonzi's The Myth of Modernism and Twentieth Century Literature ( 1986 ). See also Surrealism...

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The Oxford Companion to Western Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
320 words

... . The term has been used to denote an ethos shared by many 19th- and 20th-century works of art and often considered to dominate the culture of this era. How best to describe such an ethos in visual art has been the subject of ongoing debate among critics, especially since Clement Greenberg proposed definitions for it in essays such as ‘Modernist Painting’ ( 1960 ). In the broader world, ‘modernism’ and ‘modern art’ have long been epithets used to characterize various innovatory styles, or else the ethos of artistic innovation in general. Various...

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The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...the reader to re-establish a coherence of meaning from fragmentary forms. In English, its major landmarks are Joyce ’s Ulysses and Eliot ’s The Waste Land (both 1922 ). Further reading: Peter Childs , Modernism (2nd edn, 2007) ; Peter Nicholls , Modernisms: An Introduction (2nd edn, 2009). http://modernism.research.yale.edu/ Modernism Lab: research resource at...

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A Dictionary of Modern and Contemporary Art (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
617 words

... The common ideology, in so far as one can be said to exist, which underwrites all the varying manifestations of modern art . Its exact features have been the subject of intense debate and dispute. Charles Harrison and Paul Wood ( Art in Theory 1900–2000 , 2002 ) write that ‘Modernism stands on the one hand for a cluster of notionally independent values associated with the practice of modern art and on the other for a particular form of critical representation of the modern in art—a representation in which the pursuit of art's moral independence...

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A Dictionary of Film Studies (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
389 words

... 1. A general term applied retrospectively to a wide range of avant-garde trends in European and world literature and other arts of the early to mid 20th century, involving an embrace of cosmopolitanism and a rejection of conventions of 19th century realism in favour of new media and innovative forms and styles. 2. In cinema, expressions of modernism in films and in their contexts and modes of reception and consumption between the 1910s and the 1930s. Cinema may be regarded as an inherently modern art in several respects. Historically, its origins...

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of British Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature
Length:
6,156 words

...Modernism, however, is a much larger, much less coherent movement, and consequently its origins are more ambiguous. If we focus our attention primarily on literary modernism, and British literary modernism in particular, some of these questions are more easily resolved. In fiction, British literature might, in a pattern that seems to hold constant to the present day, have been brought to modernism by way of an American and a Pole. Henry James , the American novelist who moved permanently to London in 1876 , moved fiction in the direction of modernism...

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Paul Griffiths

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
305 words

...modernism . A current of compositional thought and practice characterized by innovation. Modernism was in evidence as an idea and as a term by the second decade of the 20th century, in association with Stravinsky's The Rite of Spring ( 1913 ), with Schoenberg's move into atonality (in about 1908 ), with the music of the Italian Futurists and Russian followers of Skryabin , and with Busoni's Sketch for a New Aesthetic of Music ( 1907 ). But although so many new hopes and endeavours were born at the same time, there was no unanimity of motivation or...

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Johanna Drucker, David Kolb, Leon Botstein, Deborah Jowitt, Randall Stevenson, Chika Okeke-Agulu, Aida Yuen Wong, and Sonal Khullar

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
29,028 words
Illustration(s):
4

...century and of program music and music drama of the late nineteenth century. The failure of modernism in music vis-à-vis the public is perhaps unique with respect to twentieth-century modernism in general. Unlike modernism in architecture, painting, and literature, musical modernism did not experience any form of generalization or imitation in mass culture owing to its failure to win the wide allegiance of any of the traditional audiences for high culture. Modernism effectively isolated the tradition of concert music from the mainstream of twentieth-century...

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A Dictionary of Critical Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...the details are hotly disputed) that modernism is the aesthetic complement of modernity (change in the social sphere) and that its drive for change is rooted in the disruptions to social life brought about by modernization (change in technology). That is to say, it was the changes in the conditions of daily life that enabled modernism to blossom. This argument, which was presented powerfully and persuasively by Marshall Berman in All that is Solid Melts into Air ( 1982 ), reflects certain historical facts: modernism was an urban aesthetic—it celebrated...

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A Dictionary of Critical Theory (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...the details are hotly disputed) that modernism is the aesthetic complement of modernity (change in the social sphere) and that its drive for change is rooted in the disruptions to social life brought about by modernization (change in technology). That is to say, it was the changes in the conditions of daily life that enabled modernism to blossom. This argument, which was presented powerfully and persuasively by Marshall Berman in All that is Solid Melts into Air ( 1982 ), reflects certain historical facts: modernism was an urban aesthetic—it celebrated...

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