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Modeling of Natural Systems

The Earth's natural system encompasses the totality of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and geosphere and their interactions. Thus it spans very many variables, time scales, and ...

Modeling of Natural Systems

Modeling of Natural Systems   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,798 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the system state as the mean (average). The definition also permits further description of change as the difference between two system states, and an anomaly as the difference between a current state and the mean state. The variations of the system arise from interactions between different parts of the system and from external forcings. Modeling of this complex and multifaceted natural system is challenging and stimulating. Researchers apply many different types of modeling techniques, including laboratory, analog, and numerical models. Laboratory...

Modeling of Natural Systems

Modeling of Natural Systems  

The Earth's natural system encompasses the totality of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and geosphere and their interactions. Thus it spans very many variables, time scales, and spatial ...
Natural Philosophy (Science)

Natural Philosophy (Science)   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,186 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...with experimental natural philosophy. By 1761 a popular text, The Newtonian System of Philosophy , was able to use the figure of a precocious young ‘Tom Telescope’ as the model for the instruction of ‘young gentlemen and ladies’. The book went through many editions and sold at least 25,000 copies in Britain. However, despite its power and the efforts of its advocates (especially in Britain), Newton's work should not be seen as coterminous with natural philosophy, certainly not after about 1760 . The various opponents of Newtonianism—from the...

Utopianism

Utopianism   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,929 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...voyages of *exploration [37] , usually to more virtuous primitive societies; and models of ideal moderate constitutionalist societies, often in the tradition of James Harrington 's Oceana ( 1656 ). Usually deeply critical of existing social and political arrangements in the tradition of Plato and More, the utopias frequently advocated the limitation of property accumulation as a means of restraining the inequality of wealth. Thus Thomas *Reid , for example, contrasted ‘the system of private property’ to the ‘utopian’ system. The literary genre of...

43b The History of the Book in Southeast Asia (2): The Mainland

43b The History of the Book in Southeast Asia (2): The Mainland   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
2,488 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...most of the Tai groups in Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, and Burma have had their own writing systems based on Indic models of writing. The Lao script, which exists in different styles ( Lao tham , Lao būhān , modern Lao), can be traced back to the 14 th century. It was used to write the Lao language of Laos and northeast Thailand, and Northern Thai as well. Today, it is also employed in writing several minority languages of Laos. Variations of Lao tham were used to write the languages of smaller Tai groups such as Tai Lư and Tai Khœn. 2 Dating systems The...

Political Economy

Political Economy   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,138 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...social insurance as a method of complementing the equalizing and democratizing potential contained in Smith's system of natural liberty [ see *natural rights ]. Although radicals and other opponents of the war with France continued to call on Smith's terminology to condemn ‘unproductive’ classes and the high taxes that supported ‘Old Corruption’, as well as the diversion of productive labour from constructive pursuits, it was Burke's realistic agenda rather than Paine's more pacific, anti-monarchical, and cosmopolitan one that prevailed during the...

Prose

Prose   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,185 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...style, modelled on the relaxed language of the late-seventeenth-century model Sir William Temple as opposed to the strained, ornate, and status-conscious prose gentility of Temple's contemporary, the third Earl of Shaftesbury. Hence, a third level of public prose could be identified in addition to the older division that opposed the ‘lofty’ or ‘refined’ writers of the conservative reviews to the ‘vulgar’ or ‘lowly’ rhetorics of the plebeian radical journalists: the ‘common’, ‘familiar’, or, in Lamb's sense, the ‘plain natural chit-chat’ of the...

Poverty

Poverty   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,179 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Thus the poor relief system linked the destitute with a much broader constituency of the poor, the great mass of ‘inferiors’ at the bottom of the social pyramid. In this sense, poverty was usually taken for granted as a natural state requiring neither redress nor explanation beyond providential sanction, and the particular theory of economic value on which it rested often went unstated or was left vague. Agriculture was still a major source of income for the labouring classes, although it had not employed a majority of the population since the early...

Novels

Novels   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,137 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Marian ( 1822 ) further extends the use of romance and folk-tale in a mock-medieval satire on modern politics; while in The Misfortunes of Elphin ( 1829 ) Peacock blends Arthurian and ancient Welsh legend, a contest of the bards, and an allegory of *Tory ideology. The works of Scott, however, provided historians of the form with the glorious revolution they sought. The novels which dominated the age were hailed as productions of natural genius and a taste uncontaminated by false models. In fact the series of works, beginning with subjects from Scottish...

Consumerism

Consumerism   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
3,809 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...political priority to the autonomous individual (natural man) laid the foundations for a model of the want-filled consumer which thereafter proved highly serviceable for the apologists of market capitalism. Hobbesian man was fleeing from a state of nature in which there were ‘no arts; no letters; no society, and which is worst of all, continual fear and danger of violent death; and the life of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short’: infinite fear bred infinite need for security. The more sunny days of the Enlightenment transmuted Hobbesian horror into...

Enlightenment

Enlightenment   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
7,794 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...described these assumptions as: first, that nature was a self-regulating system of laws; secondly, that man could study himself only as a part of nature; and thirdly, that man and nature were the creation of a beneficent providence. To these bulwarks of Enlightenment thinking may be added, as Henry May has done in his study of the American Enlightenment, the premises that the present age is more enlightened than the past and that we understand nature and humankind best through our natural faculties. May suggests that although the Enlightenment thinkers...

Exploration

Exploration   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,825 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Just as commerce had earlier been associated with luxury and effeminacy, natural history was tainted with commerce because collectors trafficked in specimens and antiquities. It was also linked with promiscuity, most obviously because natural historians such as Joseph *Banks had notoriously entered into sexual relations with local women. Natural history imagined a sexualized system, a world overwhelmed by the desire to reproduce and multiply. Lack of discrimination was the virtue of its inclusive vision, seeking out detail, particularity, and oddity rather...

Poetry

Poetry   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,432 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Creatures of the Four Elements’ who at the coming of Ololon (which is also ‘the Lord coming’) wail'd With bitter wailing: these in the aggregate are named Satan And Rahab; they know not of Regeneration, only of Generation The Fairies, Nymphs, Gnomes & Genii of the Four Elements Unforgiving & unalterable: these cannot be Regenerated But must be Created, for they know only of Generation. Though all in this system appears ‘in order sweet & lovely’, ‘Yet’ in it ‘Men are sick with love’. The apparitions of (natural) beauty, seen in the truth of Blake's ‘Vision’,...

Land

Land   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,951 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...a taste of the vertiginous and unencompassable depth of the visible world, as Wordsworth did upon Mount Snowdon, viewing the ‘gloomy breathingplace’ where ‘Mounted the roar of waters, torrents, streams / Innumerable, roaring with one voice’ ( The Prelude , 1805 ). Floating somewhere between the self-sustaining landscaped estate park on the one hand and the claims of individual consciousness and the sublimity of natural expanse on the other lay the world of the village. The enclosure of open-field farms resulted in a shift in the physical layout of villages....

Language

Language   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,614 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the literature of the previous century, a third of them from the works of * Shakespeare , * Milton , and Dryden alone, which Johnson regarded as ‘the wells of English undefiled’. Where the French academies attempted to regulate language by means of rational principles, Johnson conformed to ‘the spirit of English liberty’ by offering the models of great minds expressing the nation's genius. Nevertheless, Johnson's appeal to custom invoked a specific understanding of usage in which the need to escape foreign imports and local peculiarities of speech was...

Class

Class   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,846 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...conception of conflicting class interests within their cognitive system. More recently, the issue has resurfaced in the form of whether a language of class is indispensable for expressing a consciousness of class, especially when it is clear that radicals and oppositionists, even between 1789 and 1839 , frequently structured their collective identities in terms of other keywords and concepts, such as the category of ‘the People’. Under the influence of modern constitutive models of language, several historians have argued that the language of ‘the People’...

Landscape History: The Countryside

Landscape History: The Countryside   Quick reference

H. S. A. Fox

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,175 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...J. L. Winchester , The North West . Other fine overviews of the landscape from prehistoric times to the present day include I. G. Simmons , An Environmental History of Great Britain from 10,000 Years Ago to the Present ( 2001 ), and Frank Mitchell and Michael Ryan , Reading the Irish Landscape (rev. edn, 2007 ). A major interest in recent years, sponsored by English Heritage, has been the mapping and ‘characterization’ of landscapes by Geographic Information Systems in order to provide models and contexts for regional studies and to assist planners...

Women

Women   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,844 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...‘masculine’, ‘because I admit not of such an arrogant assumption of reason’. She wanted now to claim Macaulay as a model of what women could be; she argued that Macaulay's judgement, ‘the matured fruit of profound thinking, was a proof that a woman can acquire judgement in the full extent of that word’. This ‘arrogant assumption of reason’ by men was the main focus of Wollstonecraft 's Vindication of the Rights of Woman , now widely regarded as the founding text in modern British feminism. Written in a few weeks of furious activity in 1792 , the book...

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,807 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

... (which showed the tribute system of the Mexica empire), the Codex Bourbon and the Tonalámatl Aubin (divinatory almanacs), the Codex Mendoza (commissioned by the first viceroy of New Spain, Antonio de Mendoza, to inform the emperor Charles V ( King Charles I of Spain ) about the history, administration system, and everyday life of the ancient Mexicas), the Codex Badiano (an inventory of medicinal plants), and the Codex Florentino (a compilation of testimonies of the elderly about the divine, human, and natural world of the pre-Columbian Mexicans)....

Scottish Local and Family History

Scottish Local and Family History   Quick reference

David moody

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,622 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...nature of the terrain, with fertile straths separated by upland moors, the quite different structure and development of †local government, the radical principles of the Established Church (Presbyterians, it has been claimed, do not have the urge of Anglicans to ritualize the past), and the separate legal system and legal institutions. The Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, founded in 1780 , prophetically announced an agenda which has remained relevant. It proposed a programme of ethnographic surveys on a topographical basis, to include natural resources,...

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