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Missile Defense Issues

The need for a defense against ballistic missile attack first arose in 1944. At the end of World War II, Nazi Germany launched V-2 rockets against Allied targets in Europe ...

Missile Defense Issues

Missile Defense Issues   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
2,760 words

... Defense Issues . The need for a defense against ballistic missile attack first arose in 1944 . At the end of World War II, Nazi Germany launched V-2 rockets against Allied targets in Europe; it was the first rocket to achieve suborbital spaceflight, and carried a 1000 kilogram (2,205 pounds) high explosive warhead, and was the forerunner of modern rocket and missile technology. Early ideas on missile defense were ineffective because they centered on anti-aircraft defense, rather than antimissile defense. The only realistic defenses against the V-2 at...

Missile Defense Issues

Missile Defense Issues  

The need for a defense against ballistic missile attack first arose in 1944. At the end of World War II, Nazi Germany launched V-2 rockets against Allied targets in Europe ...
Bomarc missile issue

Bomarc missile issue  

The controversy highlights the action-reaction pattern of the Canadian–American defence relationship during the Cold War. In the aftermath of the mid-1950s bomber gap scare, American ...
chemical and biological warfare

chemical and biological warfare  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(CBW)The use of synthetic poisonous substances, or organisms such as disease germs, to kill or injure the enemy. They include chlorine, phosgene, and mustard gas (first used in World War I), various ...
Iran-Contra Affair

Iran-Contra Affair  

In 1985, elements within the US National Security Council centred around lieutenant colonel Oliver North began to sell arms, via Israel, to the Islamic republic of Iran. The arms then went to ...
Henry Martin Jackson

Henry Martin Jackson  

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Overview Page
(b. Everett, Washington, 31 May 1912; d. Everett, Washington, 1 Sept. 1983)US; member of the US House of Representatives 1940–52; US Senator 1952–83 The son of Norwegian immigrants, Jackson acquired ...
Gulf War

Gulf War  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
(1991)An international conflict in the Gulf region of Kuwait and Iraq. Iraq, as the successor to the Ottoman empire, claimed Kuwait in 1961, claimed Kuwait in 1961, but the issue was not pressed and ...
The Strategic Defense Initiative

The Strategic Defense Initiative   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was a major program for defense against Soviet missiles championed by President Ronald Reagan beginning in 1983 . The U.S. missile defense program began in March 1946 in response to Germany's World War II missile program that included plans for an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM). By the mid‐1950s, when intelligence indicated the Soviets were developing their own ICBM, both the army and air force were pursuing missile defense programs. In 1958 , to end squabbling that had developed between the two services,...

Bomarc missile issue

Bomarc missile issue   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Canadian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
203 words

...missile issue . The controversy highlights the action-reaction pattern of the Canadian–American defence relationship during the Cold War. In the aftermath of the mid-1950s bomber gap scare, American national-security planners outlined Canada's role in the defence against a Soviet attack across the polar region. The problem became more acute in February 1959 after the cancellation of Canada's Avro Arrow Interceptor . One alternative was to equip Canadian air defence forces with the Bomarc B, a surface-to-air missile designed to intercept Soviet bombers....

Gates, Thomas

Gates, Thomas (1906–1983)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...hostility to centralized defense organization. While supporting President Dwight D. Eisenhower 's effort to hold down defense spending, Gates recognized the need for a modest increase to meet growing Soviet power. He firmly and accurately denied the existence of a “missile gap”—an advantage in missiles favoring the Soviet Union. In 1969 , President Richard M. Nixon appointed Gates to head a commission that successfully recommended replacing the conscription with an All‐Volunteer Force . [See also Defense, Department of ; McNamara, Robert...

Laird, Melvin

Laird, Melvin (1922)   Reference library

Mark R. Polelle

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...many procurement policies of Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara . During Laird's tenure, the United States under the Nixon Doctrine urged its allies to do more for their common defense by emphasizing regional alliances and increasing their defense budgets. Besides focusing on Vietnam, Laird also dealt with arms control issues and changes in the military draft. In 1972 the United States and the Soviet Union agreed to a treaty that limited each country to two antiballistic missile sites of one hundred missiles each. In response to controversy over...

Laird, Melvin R.

Laird, Melvin R. (1922)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...McNamara . During Laird's tenure, the United States under the Nixon Doctrine urged its allies to do more for their common defense via emphasis on regional alliances and increases in their defense budgets. Besides focusing on Vietnam, Laird also dealt with arms control issues and changes in the military draft. In 1972 , the United States and USSR agreed to a treaty limiting each country to two antiballistic missile sites of 100 missiles each. In response to controversy over inequities in conscription , Laird helped move to “zero draft calls” and an ...

Cuban missile crisis

Cuban missile crisis   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Canadian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
156 words

...missile crisis . After US spy planes sighted Soviet nuclear-tipped missiles deployed in Cuba in October 1962 , President John F. Kennedy issued an ultimatum for their immediate removal. The confrontation threatened nuclear war and caused a dramatic rift in Canadian–American relations. Prime Minister John Diefenbaker refused Kennedy's request for immediate support and suggested instead that the United Nations investigate the Soviet bases in Cuba before decisive action was taken. This diplomatic complication would have allowed the Soviets more time to...

missiles

missiles   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
1,131 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the 1960s. Such was the potential destructive force of nuclear missiles that no defence was considered truly viable and even anti-ballistic missiles (ABMs) could only provide the survivability of counterstrike missiles, thus negating the possibility of surprise first-strike attacks. Since the 1970s many ICBMs have been equipped with multiple independently targeted re-entry vehicles (MIRVs), which allow a number of nuclear warheads to be delivered at a variety of targets from a single missile, thus greatly escalating the potential for nuclear holocaust and...

SALT Treaties

SALT Treaties (1972)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...Missile (ABM) Treaty, which severely limited defenses against ballistic missiles (ABM defenses), and an Interim Agreement on the Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms, which froze the total number of strategic offensive missile launchers pending further negotiation of a more comprehensive treaty limiting strategic missiles and bombers. (A separate agreement on measures to avert accidental use of nuclear weapons had been concluded in September 1971 .) The ABM Treaty, of indefinite duration, restricted each party to two antiballistic missile sites,...

Civil Defense

Civil Defense   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...responsibility for civil defense to the Pentagon and called for an expanded shelter program. Congress appropriated the largest amount ever, $208 million in 1961 , for marking and stocking existing shelter spaces such as basements and subways. Unnerved by the dissent and public excitement, Kennedy downplayed civil defense in 1962 , especially after Governor Rockefeller's civil defense program was defeated in New York State. The growing peace movement argued effectively that civil defense offered no protection against nuclear missiles and fueled the arms...

Office of Technology Assessment, Congressional

Office of Technology Assessment, Congressional   Reference library

Paul S. Boyer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...of the Executive Branch, following a series of contentious debates over technology-related environmental issues and strategic matters such as ballistic-missile defense and funding for the supersonic transport (SST). With an annual budget eventually reaching $22 million and some two hundred employees at its peak, including specialists in various scientific and technological fields, the OTA issued reports on a wide range of technology-related issues. The OTA remained under congressional control, with its research agenda dictated by requests from...

Defense, Department of

Defense, Department of   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...compared with previous secretaries of defense, he achieved an unprecedented degree of centralized civilian control. Under McNamara, Defense also acquired a more prominent role in foreign affairs through its “little State Department,” the Office of International Security Affairs (ISA), headed in the 1960s by a succession of able assistant secretaries, including Paul H. Nitze , John McNaughton , and Paul Warnke . During a decade dominated by volatile national security issues—the Berlin Wall Crisis, the Cuban Missile Crisis , the Dominican Republic, nuclear...

Nuclear Weapons and Strategy

Nuclear Weapons and Strategy   Reference library

Lawrence Freedman, Timothy J. Lynch, George Bunn, Timothy J. Lynch, Joseph M. Siracusa, and Joseph M. Siracusa

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...the threat posed by strategic nuclear missiles. The president's proposal was officially titled the Strategic Defense Initiative ( SDI ) in January 1984 , while critics quickly dubbed it “Star Wars.” The response to Reagan's proposal was decidedly mixed and short-lived. In fact, within a week, Reagan's missile defense proposal had disappeared because it no longer was considered newsworthy, and the public's attention shifted to more immediate issues. Obviously, such a comprehensive ballistic missile defense posed a most daunting challenge to the...

Defence Expenditure

Defence Expenditure   Reference library

Tanya Sethi and Reddy C. Rammanohar

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...of the missile programmes, respectively) are never shown even in part as spending on defence. The decision following the India–US nuclear deal of 2005 to keep 8 of India’s 22 nuclear reactors outside international civilian safeguards suggests that more than one-third of the Indian nuclear establishment’s expenditure is likely to be oriented towards developing nuclear weapons. Table 1 presents two different sets of estimates of India’s defence expenditure between 1998–9 and 2010–11.The alternative and more inclusive estimate of India’s defence outlays is...

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