Mineral Revolution Reference library
The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World
... Revolution . Historians of South Africa refer to the major economic advance of the late nineteenth century as the mineral revolution because the discovery of first diamonds and then gold transformed the country from an essentially agricultural to an industrial one and fueled massive economic growth. Though the period from 1870 to 1910 was one of expansion and prosperity in many countries, as well as of the scramble for territory by the colonial powers, those trends were nowhere more spectacularly witnessed than in South Africa. In laying the basis for...
Natural Philosophy (Science) Reference library
An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age
...with rival theories of the natural world. Yet these developments are only part of the story of natural philosophy in the period of revolution and *Romanticism . When the alliance with Anglican theology was challenged in the late eighteenth century, more was involved than the attachment of natural philosophy to different theological and political positions. Historians have spoken of a second scientific revolution during our period, marked by major advances in the fields of mathematical physics, *chemistry , optics, electromagnetism, and biology. The...
Islam and Humanism Reference library
Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook
...have to resolve to replace the ancient edifice by a new, reconstructed elaboration on the fundamentals . It is more than a reform, it is a revolution in the structures of the Islamic world that the triumph of humanism, and the pursuit by Islam of its earthly responsibilities, demand. After the revolution against the Other, which was nothing but a revolt, a negation, the revolution against the Self, the real revolution: that of the positivity of the second birth, which has a constructive mission. To design itself less for desacralization than for demanding...
Popular Culture Quick reference
The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)
...social practice, by contrast, was self‐regulated through established precedent or ‘custom’. Lore and custom were complementary. Lore ‘defined’ a proper place for everything and provided explanations if the pattern was disturbed. It embraced planets, trees, animals, humankind, minerals, and so on in a manner that integrated ‘pagan’ and popular Christian perceptions of the supernatural. It therefore also comprised the knowledge by which the potency inherent in all of nature might be harnessed by mankind for magical or medicinal purposes. Traditional popular...
Forging an Identity: The Emergence of Ancient Israel Reference library
Lawrence E. Stager
Oxford History of the Biblical World
...king. Whether this was a revolution from the bottom up, which resulted in the new Yahwistic faith (according to Gottwald), or whether the new faith served as the catalyst for revolutionary change (according to Mendenhall), both variants of the “peasants' revolt” hypothesis consider the participants to be insiders, not outsiders—an underclass of former Canaanites who took on a new identity as they joined the newly constituted community “Israel.” The “peasants' revolt” model and concomitant “Yahwistic revolution” have only partial...
38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World Reference library
The Oxford Companion to the Book
...decoration. The *inks used had almost as exalted a status in the literature of penmanship as the pens (one poet called ink ‘the perfume of men’). They varied in their recipes. In the earlier period, for writing on parchment, a brownish ink was used, made from combinations of mineral salts and tannins derived from gall-nuts. After the introduction of paper, however, this was found to have a destructive effect, and black inks made from soot and gum (already used on papyrus) were preferred; they were also considered aesthetically superior. Moreover, they were...
A Land Divided: Judah and Israel from the Death of Solomon to the Fall of Samaria Reference library
Edward F. Campbell Jr.
Oxford History of the Biblical World
...and south could cooperate and were strong in relation to their neighbors, they controlled the trade routes through the region, both north-south and east-west. Israel had better rainfall and contained the fertile valleys of Jezreel and the Jordan, but Judah held the key to the mineral resources in the south and to the port that gave access to Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Controlling as they did the land bridge between Eurasia and Africa, both constituted crucial interests for Egypt and Mesopotamia. The character of the land had an important...
Comte de Buffon
Democratic Republic of Congo
United States of America
New Brunswick Quick reference
...Loyalists entered the region from the American colonies during the American Revolution . Established in 1784 , the province joined Nova Scotia , Québec , and Ontario to form the Dominion of Canada in 1867 . The land rises gradually from e to w , and is drained by the St John and Miramichi rivers. More than 75% of the province is forested. The chief crops are hay, clover, oats, potatoes, and fruit. Industries: timber, leather goods, pharmaceuticals, machinery. There are mineral deposits. Area: 73,437sq km (28,354sq mi). Pop. ( 2001 )...
Illinois Quick reference
...is Springfield . Illinois was explored first by the French in 1673 . Ceded to Britain in 1763 , it was occupied by American troops during the American Revolution and became a state of the Union in 1818 . The land is generally flat and is drained by rivers flowing sw to the Mississippi. Its fertile soil supports crops such as hay, oats and barley; livestock farming is also important. Mineral deposits are found in the s . Chicago is a transport centre and port on Lake Michigan . Area: 146,075sq km (56,400sq mi). Pop. ( 2000 )...