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Meilichios

A cult epithet meaning roughly ‘who can, but needs to, be propitiated’. The primary Meilichios was Zeus. He was a god of individuals and of semi-familial groups (K. Forbes, Philologus ... ...

Meilichios

Meilichios   Reference library

Robert Christopher Towneley Parker

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
187 words

... , a cult epithet meaning roughly ‘who can, but needs to, be propitiated’ (Lalonde revives the theory of a link with Phoenician Molek [Moloch]). The primary Meilichios was Zeus . (But note also Aphrodite Meilichia, SEG 38. 997.) He was a god of individuals and of semi-familial groups ( K. Forbes , Philol. 1956 ) more often than of cities, a frequent recipient of private dedications, and a giver of wealth ( Xen. An. 7. 8. 1–6). sacrifices to him were often of non-standard type (wineless libations , victims burnt whole), and his festival at...

Meilichios

Meilichios  

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Overview Page
A cult epithet meaning roughly ‘who can, but needs to, be propitiated’. The primary Meilichios was Zeus. He was a god of individuals and of semi-familial groups (K. Forbes, Philologus ...
Diasia

Diasia  

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Overview Page
An ancient and ‘very great’ (Thucydides 1. 126. 6) Athenian festival of Zeus Meilichios, held at Agrae just outside the city on 23 Anthesterion (roughly, late February). According to Thucydides ...
Attic cults and myths

Attic cults and myths  

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Overview Page
Most Greek states honoured most Greek gods; the differences between them are of emphasis and degree. As characteristic Athenian emphases one might mention: the extraordinary prominence of Athena, ...
Diasia

Diasia   Reference library

Robert Christopher Towneley Parker

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
150 words

...1. 126. 6) Athenian festival of Zeus Meilichios , held at Agrae just outside the city on 23 Anthesterion (roughly, late February). According to Thucydides ( 2 ) , Athenians attended en masse , and sacrificed ‘not animal victims, but local kinds of offerings’ ( cakes ?); animals were, however, offered too, as some are listed in calendars to be sent up for the festival from outlying demes . It was celebrated ‘with a certain grimness’ (schol. Lucian 107. 15, 110. 27 f. Rabe), appropriate no doubt to Zeus Meilichios; and it lacked the publicly provided...

chthonian gods

chthonian gods   Reference library

Robert Christopher Towneley Parker

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
398 words

...not listed; if pressed to do so, unnaturally, a Greek would doubtless have named Hades /Pluton, Persephone , the Eumenides ( see erinyes ), and similar figures, and probably the heroes too. Scholars often, more questionably, extend the list to include powers such as Zeus Meilichios who are not explicitly associated with the earth but share characteristics with those which are. In modern accounts, the Olympian/chthonian distinction is often elevated into a fundamental principle structuring the whole of Greek mythology and ritual. But the Olympio-chthonian...

Attic cults and myths

Attic cults and myths   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
408 words

...in Piraeus , Thargelia ) were also very popular. Other traditional festivals that were widely or universally celebrated (sometimes impinging on domestic life, through the custom of preparing special food) or that affected many families from time to time were the Diasia ( Zeus Meilichios ), Cronia ( see cronus ), Pyanopsia ( Apollo ), and several initiatory festivals of Artemis , chief among them the Brauronia . The most important Attic myths concerned: the conflict of Athena and Poseidon for possession of Attica; the birth from earth of the first two...

Attic cults and myths

Attic cults and myths   Reference library

Robert Christopher Towneley Parker

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
623 words

...in Piraeus, Thargelia ) were also very popular. Other traditional festivals that were widely or universally celebrated (sometimes impinging on domestic life, through the custom of preparing special food) or that affected many families from time to time were the Diasia (Zeus Meilichios ), Cronia (when slaves dined with masters), Pyanopsia (Apollo), Scira ( see scirophoria ) (Demeter: another women's festival), Hieros Gamos ( Zeus and Hera) and several initiatory festivals of Artemis, chief among them the Brauronia ( see brauron ). ‘Spectator...

Sicily and Magna Graecia, cults and mythology

Sicily and Magna Graecia, cults and mythology   Reference library

Michael H. Jameson

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
575 words

...common Greek cults naturally predominate in the new cities of mixed origin there are exceptions. The Megarian cult ( see megara ) of (Demeter) Malophoros was established outside the town soon after the foundation of Selinus . But alongside her sanctuary was that of Zeus Meilichios , a figure associated with familial and personal welfare, worshipped widely (though not in the west) and sometimes, as here, for the most part aniconically. At Metapontum a comparable cult, of Apollo Lykeios, is plausibly associated with male rites of passage. There are...

Zeus

Zeus   Reference library

Fritz Graf

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
2,672 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of a snake (Athens, Thespiae): property is bound to the ground, at least in the still agrarian mentality of ancient Greece, and its protectors belong to the earth. The same holds true for Zeus Μειλίχιος ( Meilichios ). For the individual, Xenophon attests his efficiency in providing funds ( An. 7. 8. 1 ff.), while in many communities Zeus Meilichios protects families or clans; in Athens, he receives the polis festival of the Diasia; here also and elsewhere, he has the form of a snake. And finally, one might add Zeus ϕίλιος ( Philios ), protector of...

Zeus

Zeus   Reference library

Fritz Graf

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
2,755 words

...the ensuing prosecution of the killer with the formal condemnation of axe and knife, enacts a crisis, not a bright festival. The Diasia, ‘the greatest Athenian festival of Zeus’ (Thuc. 1. 126. 6), had an even less auspicious character. The festival took place in honour of Zeus Meilichios who appears in reliefs in the shape of a huge snake. His cult took place outside the town, with animal sacrifice or bloodless cakes; the sacrificial animals were burnt whole. This meant no common meal to release the tension of the sacrifice; instead, there were banquets in...

Hades

Hades   Reference library

Albert Henrichs

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,507 words

.... The couple were widely worshipped as Pluton and Kore ( IG 2 2 . 1672. 182, 4751; CEG 2.571); at Eleusis, they were also known as Theos and Thea. Pluton is related to the Eleusinian cult figures Plutus and Eubouleus as well as to other friendly chthonians such as Zeus Meilichios and Zeus Eubouleus. In various curse tablets, however, he is invoked along with Demeter and Kore or, more menacingly, with the Erinyes, Hecate, Hermes , Moirai, and Persephone ( J. G. Gager , Curse Tablets and Binding Spells from the Ancient World ( 1992 ), nos. 53, 84,...

Dionysus

Dionysus   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,210 words

...the expectation of an after‐life blessed with the joys of Dionysus. The common factor is his capacity to transcend existential boundaries. Both ‘most terrible and most sweet to mortals’ in Attic tragedy (Euripides, Bacchae 861 ), he was called ‘Eater of Raw Flesh’ as well as Meilichios (‘who can, but needs to, be propitiated’) in cult. In Archaic epic, Dionysus is referred to as a ‘joy for mortals’ and ‘he of many delights’. The source of all this pleasure is wine , the god's ambivalent ‘gift’, which brings both ‘joy and burden’. Dionysus ‘invented’ wine,...

Zeus

Zeus   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,504 words

...all participants guilty, with the ensuing prosecution of the killer with the formal condemnation of axe and knife, enacts a crisis, not a bright festival. The Diasia, ‘the greatest Athenian festival of Zeus’, had an even less auspicious character. The festival honoured Zeus Meilichios (‘propitiable’), who appears in reliefs in the shape of a huge snake . His cult took place just outside the city, with animal sacrifice or cakes; the victims were burnt whole. This meant no common meal to release the tension of the sacrifice; instead, there were feasts in...

Hades

Hades   Reference library

Albert Henrichs

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,750 words

.... The couple were widely worshipped as Pluton and Kore ( IG 2 2 . 1672. 182, 4751; CEG 2.571); at Eleusis, they were also known as Theos and Thea. Pluton is related to the Eleusinian cult figures Plutus and Eubouleus as well as to other friendly chthonians such as Zeus Meilichios and Zeus Eubouleus ( see chthonian gods ). In various curse tablets, however, he is invoked along with Demeter and Kore or, more menacingly, with the Erinyes , Hecate , Hermes , Moirai, and Persephone (Gager (see bibliog below) nos. 53, 84, 89, 110, 134); curses in the...

Hecate

Hecate   Reference library

Albert Henrichs

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
2,112 words

...cf. IG 2 2 . 4665–8). Sacrifices to Artemis Hecate and to Kourotrophos were performed in Hecate's shrine at Erchia in Attica ( LSCG 18 B 6–13, 375 / 50 bc ). Hecate was also associated with various male gods, including Apollo Delphinios, Asclepius , Hermes, Pan , Zeus Meilichios, and Zeus Panamaros. Like all chthonian divinities, Hecate was perceived as simultaneously terrible and benign. Her ‘good’ side is addressed by her Hesiodic epithet ‘nurturer of the young’ (Hes. Theog. 450 κουροτρόφος, echoed in later sources). In Aeschylus, the title...

Pompeii and Herculaneum

Pompeii and Herculaneum   Reference library

Thomas N. Howe

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
7,610 words

...ca. 100–80 b.c.e. , although there is some debate as to whether this, like the rebuilding of the Jupiter temple, occurred before or after the Roman colony of 80 b.c.e. There was also a very small temple behind the large theater, once thought to have been dedicated to Jupiter Meilichios but later thought to be dedicated to Aesculapius. Next to it a very unconventional sanctuary was built to Isis, which, along with one known from Puteolis, is one of the oldest in Italy, dating initially to the late second century b.c.e. and rebuilt after 62 c.e. It consists...

Zeus

Zeus   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
2,330 words
Illustration(s):
1

...emperor was frequently equated with Zeus, both in literature and in iconography. There was also a more down-to-earth side to the worship of Zeus. Protection of the household and the property within it was the responsibility of Zeus, as Herkeios and Ktesios, respectively. Zeus Meilichios (Kindly) was represented as a snake and brought personal wealth and well-being; he was celebrated in the largest festival for Zeus in Athens, the Diasia. Agriculture was not outside Zeus’ purview, either, even beyond his responsibility for rain; the sources attest to both a...

Dionysus

Dionysus ((Linear B Diwonusos))   Reference library

Albert Henrichs

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
3,542 words

...adopts a fluid persona based on illusion, transformation, and the simultaneous presence of opposite traits. Both ‘most terrible and most sweet to mortals’ in Attic tragedy (Eur. Bacch . 861), he was called ‘Eater of Raw Flesh’ ( Ōmēstēs ) on Lesbos as well as ‘Mild’ ( Meilichios ) on Naxos in actual cult (Alc. fr. 129.9 L.-P., P. Oxy. 53.3711; FGrHist 499 F 4). The name Dionysus appears for the first time on three fragmentary Linear B tablets from Mycenaean Pylos (W Peloponnese) and Khania ( Crete ) dated to c. 1250 bc . The tablets confirm his...

Pompeii

Pompeii   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
11,282 words
Illustration(s):
9

...period Pompeii enjoyed great economic prosperity, especially from c. 250 bc onwards, thanks to its agricultural activities and maritime trade. The town fortifications were strengthened, and a number of public monuments were built, including the forum, the Temple of Zeus Meilichios, the Temple of Apollo, the basilica and the Stabian Baths. Construction continued after 80 bc but at a different rhythm and with a more grandiose vision: the amphitheatre, the odeion, the Temple of Capitoline Jupiter, the Temple of Venus and the Forum Baths were built, and...

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