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Mediterranean World

Subject: Archaeology

Since its origin in the Mediterranean, there have been innumerable experiences of peace; they are as numerous as the participants, historical scopes, and moments. Peace coexists with and ...

Mediterranean World

Mediterranean World   Reference library

Chris Scarre, Curtis Runnels, Christine E. Morris, and Brian A. Sparkes

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
5,050 words

... World Introduction The Mediterranean Stone Age The Rise of the Aegean and Mediterranean States The Dominance of Greece and Rome Mediterranean World: Introduction The Mediterranean Sea, lying between Europe, Africa, and Asia, has played a role in human history as both a barrier and a bond between the communities clustered around its shores. It has also been the focus of a series of major urban civilizations: Egypt, the Near East, Crete, and Mycenae; Assyrians and Persians; Classical Greece and the Roman Empire; the Islamic world and medieval...

Mediterranean World

Mediterranean World   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
1,530 words

... along with other terms and concepts of the Greek, Jewish, Roman, Islamic, and Christian cultures and others present in the Ancient World and the Medieval Mediterranean, conformed to a world view of peace present in the personal, domestic, and public spaces. At the same time, there was an unstoppable ascendancy of these criteria in the political aspects of the government of societies. Although it is true that this world view was plural, it is nevertheless possible to recognize innumerable interactions between the various forms of Peace. The similarities...

Attitudes toward Blacks in the Ancient Mediterranean World

Attitudes toward Blacks in the Ancient Mediterranean World   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...toward Blacks in the Ancient Mediterranean World Who were “blacks” in the ancient Mediterranean world and where did they live? Ancient written and artistic (iconographical) evidence provides copious information about people with physical types that closely resemble Africans and peoples of African descent in the modern world. These ancient people, known in common and historical usage as Negroes or blacks, inhabited the Nile River valley south of Egypt (often called Kush in Egyptian records and Ethiopia or Nubia in Greco-Roman documents) as well...

Mediterranean World

Mediterranean World  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Archaeology
Since its origin in the Mediterranean, there have been innumerable experiences of peace; they are as numerous as the participants, historical scopes, and moments. Peace coexists with and also manages ...
Attitudes toward Blacks in the Ancient Mediterranean World

Attitudes toward Blacks in the Ancient Mediterranean World  

Who were “blacks” in the ancient Mediterranean world and where did they live? Ancient written and artistic (iconographical) evidence provides copious information about people with physical types that ...
1 Writing Systems

1 Writing Systems   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,152 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
7

...alphabet is even more perplexing. That the alphabet reached the modern world via the ancient Greeks is well known—the word ‘alphabet’ comes from the first two of the Greek letters, alpha and beta—but we have no clear idea of how and when the alphabet appeared in Greece; how the Greeks thought of adding letters standing for the vowels as well as the consonants; and how, even more fundamentally, the idea of an alphabet occurred to the pre-Greek societies at the eastern end of the Mediterranean during the 2 nd millennium bc . The first well-attested alphabets...

8 The Transmission of Jewish Knowledge through MSS and Printed Books

8 The Transmission of Jewish Knowledge through MSS and Printed Books   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
4,966 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...period. These books were produced by approximately 40 presses active in Italy, Spain, and Portugal, and by one in Turkey. After the expulsion of the Jews from the Iberian peninsula at the end of the 15 th century, Italy became the primary centre of Hebrew printing in the Mediterranean world, with Venice, Mantua, Sabbioneta, and Cremona having the most important presses. A particularly significant chapter in the history of the transmission of Jewish texts is the activity of the famous Venetian press of van *Bomberghen , a Christian printer from Antwerp. He had...

36 The History of the Book in the Balkans

36 The History of the Book in the Balkans   Reference library

Aleksandra B. Vraneš

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
3,947 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...6 Macedonia 7 Bosnia and Herzegovina 8 Croatia 9 Slovenia 10 Albania 11 Romania 12 The socialist and post-socialist eras 1 Balkan geography The Balkans, the region in the southeast of Europe, is geographically bounded by the rivers Sava and Danube in the north; the Mediterranean in the south; the Black Sea, the Sea of Marmara, and the Aegean Sea in the east and southeast; and the Adriatic and Ionian seas in the west and southwest. Although the question is disputed, the countries making up the region are generally taken to include: Albania, Bosnia and...

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
13,110 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...MSS. One category of MS book in which the Muslim world made a notable contribution to global knowledge is that of *maps and *atlases . A *map of the Gulf of İzmir from a MS dated 1587 of Piri Reis’s Kitāb-i Baḥriyye : the original work belongs to about 1521 and, like a *portolan , describes the Mediterranean for sailors. The Bodleian Library, University of Oxford (MS D’Orville 543) Muslims extended the inherited traditions of Ptolemy and other ancient cartographers to create world and regional maps of an accuracy that was not matched until...

Antony and Cleopatra

Antony and Cleopatra   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,330 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...Death of Cleopatra , by John Collier. © Gallery Oldham, UK / Bridgeman Images Artistic features: One of Shakespeare’s longest plays (at over 3,000 lines), Antony and Cleopatra has an unusually large number of scenes, some very short. Its action flows rapidly all around a Mediterranean world which in its concluding movement inexorably contracts to the monument, where most of the last act after Antony’s death is given over to Cleopatra’s self-transfiguring suicide. Despite its profusion of character and incident, the play is remarkable for the degree to which...

29 The History of the Book in Modern Greece, c.1453–2000

29 The History of the Book in Modern Greece, c.1453–2000   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
2,105 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...to 1820 The history of modern Greek books can be divided into two periods: before and after 1820 . The early printing of Greek books occurred outside Greek territory, on presses partly owned by Greeks. After 1820 , numerous presses operated in the Greek state and in eastern Mediterranean towns. The first modern Greek book—that is, a book written in the Greek language (though not necessarily in the modern tongue) and printed for the Greek public—is Constantinus Lascaris’ *grammar (Milan, 1476 ). Modern Greek society readily adapted to the appearance of...

Mythology

Mythology   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,714 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...language’. Following the Christian diffusionist tradition, he asserted the descent of all the peoples of the world from the survivors of the Flood. His system gave particular prominence to Ham , accursed for spying on his father's nakedness. Allegedly Ham's Cushite progeny, via his wicked grandson Nimrod, builder of the tower of Babel, colonized the world far and near after the dispersal, preserving and disseminating the original language of the world. Bryant argued with wearying predictability that the whole range of ancient civilizations were all of Cushite...

Publishing

Publishing   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,242 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...preoccupations and commercial interests of their members. Liverpool held an outstanding collection of works on the pros and cons of the slave trade; Manchester specialized in technical works; while Bristol housed a large collection of travel literature on the Levant, the Mediterranean, and North America—all areas important to the city's trade. Though the shape of collections in subscription libraries was fairly uniform, they all contained little fiction and large numbers of books of history, travel literature, belles-lettres, theology, natural history,...

22 The History of the Book in France

22 The History of the Book in France   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,032 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...Cretté, and Pierre Legrain. They were succeeded, after World War II, by the outstanding trio of Georges Leroux, Pierre-Lucien Martin, and Monique Mathieu. Their successor, Jean de Gonet, has been remarkable both for his efforts to democratize original bindings by using industrial *leather (‘revorim’) and because, unlike them, he operated his own workshop rather than being strictly a designer. World War II, when the country was occupied for more than four years, had dramatic consequences for the book world. Censorship was imposed by the Nazis (the notorious...

28 The History of the Book in Italy

28 The History of the Book in Italy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,068 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...to Italian intellectuals principally through medieval Latin. The subsequent fall of Byzantium (Constantinople) in 1453 precipitated a migration of Greek scholars, often with MSS in their baggage, who scraped a living in Italy through teaching. With its position athwart the Mediterranean, governing trade between West and East, with the wealth of its great banking families, and the influx of outside revenue ensured by the Catholic Church, 15 th -century Italy (albeit fractured into feuding and sometimes warring states) was the richest and culturally...

5 The European Medieval Book

5 The European Medieval Book   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
9,862 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...near Naples and compiling works on the Psalms and other Christian subjects. Christianity and classical learning were not necessarily contradictory, and the books that emerged around the Mediterranean show debts to both cultures. A crucial legacy of early Christianity in a Roman context was the invention and adoption of the *codex format. Books in the ancient world had mostly been produced on continuous *scrolls , but the codex was ideal for texts that needed constant consultation at different places, especially law and the Bible. Biblical texts, such...

The Tempest

The Tempest   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Anthony Davies, and Will Sharpe

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
4,078 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...be developed by many anti-colonial writers, particularly Octave Mannoni in East Africa , and would become a commonplace of cultural materialist and new historicist criticism from the 1970s onwards. The extent to which the play, though set in the Mediterranean, is in any sense ‘about’ the New World (and a colonial enterprise which in Shakespeare’s time barely existed) has been a contentious question throughout the post-war period (not coincidentally, a period when Shakespeare studies have been increasingly dominated by North American critics)....

Mediterranean

Mediterranean  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
The term “Mediterranean” is usually associated with a set of distinctive environmental, cultural, and historical images that create a unified body. Such a practice originated in the grand tour, ...
Toulon

Toulon  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Capital of Var department, on the Mediterranean coast, se France. Toulon is France's leading naval base and its second-largest Mediterranean port after Marseilles. Originally known as Telo Martius, ...
Mediterranean diet

Mediterranean diet  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Typically, a diet rich in pasta, bread, fruit, and vegetables, with moderate amounts of poultry and fish, cooked in olive oil and washed down with red wine. The Mediterranean diet is reputed to be ...

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