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Mauritania

A coastal country in north-west Africa, bounded by Morocco and Algeria on the north and by Mali and Senegal on the east and south. Physical. Most of Mauritania lies in ...

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World Flags

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

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World Maps

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...Mauritania Physical map Political map...

Mauritania

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Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... The modern Islamic Republic of Mauritania is situated in the southwest...

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The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...Mauritania ( Mūrītāniyā ) The Islamic Republic of Mauritania (Arabic: Al Jumhūriyyah al Islāmiyyah al Mūrītāniyyah) since 1958 , two years before independence was gained from France. Previously an autonomous republic within the French Community ( 1958 ); a colony ( 1920 ) in French West Africa and a French protectorate ( 1903 ). France had actually acquired territorial rights to Mauritania in 1814 at the Treaty of Paris, but did little to develop them until 1899 when Xavier Coppolani , a Corsican colonial administrator, was sent to Mauritania to...

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Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
693 words

... . The Islamic republic of Mauritania is a quintessential Saharan country that covers an area of 397,956 square miles, or roughly twice the size of France, its former colonial ruler. Mauritania shares its northern borders with the Western Sahara, the disputed territory between Morocco and the Algerian-backed Polisario Front. It is bordered to the northeast by Algeria and Mali and to the south by Senegal. The country is divided into thirteen states and is administered from Nouakchott, the capital. Mauritania's multiethnic population of more than 2.5...

Mauritania

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Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,653 words
Illustration(s):
1

...from the Mauritanian army. Three officers received death sentences. Mauritania’s racial tensions sparked an international crisis in April 1989 , when two Senegalese farmers were allegedly killed in a grazing-rights dispute with Mauritanian herders in the Senegal River valley border region. Riots broke out in Dakar, and in both countries Senegalese and Mauritanian expatriates were attacked. Dozens died in Senegal, more than 200 died in Mauritania, and tens of thousands fled. As the countries airlifted each other’s citizens home, black Mauritanians accused...

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The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
337 words

... (Μαυριτανία). From the 1st C. a.d. , Mauritania designated that part of North Africa extending from the border of Numidia (the Ampsaga River) to the Atlantic. Originally, Mauritania was divided into two provinces: Caesariensis to the east and Tingitana to the west, the border between the two formed by the Mulucha (mod. Moulouya) River. Diocletian detached the eastern part of Caesariensis to form the new province of Sitifensis. Following the Byz. reconquest of Africa ( 533 ), Justinian I called for the reestablishment of the “two Mauritanias.” The...

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
679 words
Illustration(s):
4

...1958 Mauritania became a self-governing territory in the French Union. It achieved full independence in 1960 . Politics In 1961 Mauritania's president, Mokhtar Ould Daddah, made the country a one-party state. In 1976 Spain withdrew from Spanish Sahara (now Western Sahara ), which borders Mauritania to the N. Morocco occupied the N two-thirds of the territory. Mauritania took the rest. Saharan guerrillas belonging to POLISARIO (the Popular Front for the Liberation of Saharan Territories) began an armed struggle for independence. In 1979 Mauritania...

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A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
551 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Berber tribes (who still form one-quarter of its population), Mauritania was first sighted by Europeans in the 15th century. French penetration of the interior began in 1858 , and in 1903 the country became a French protectorate. In 1920 Mauritania was made a territory of French West Africa. It became an autonomous republic within the French Community in 1958 , and fully independent in 1960 . Following the Spanish withdrawal from Western Sahara in 1976 Morocco and Mauritania divided between them the southern part of this territory, known as...

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A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
662 words
Illustration(s):
1

...28 November 1960 . Mauritania was governed by the Parti du Peuple Mauritanien ( PPM , Mauritanian People's Party) under President Mokhtar Ould Daddah ( b. 1924 ; d. 2003 ). In 1976 Mauritania occupied the southern half of Western Sahara, with Morocco occupying the north. However, its limited resources were overstretched by the costs of the occupation, during which the size of its army increased tenfold. Its fragile economy ground to a halt, weakened further by attacks from the West Saharan guerrilla movement, POLISARIO. Mauritanian forces were compelled...

Mauritania

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The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
631 words

... . The Islamic Republic of Mauritania occupies a large area of the Sahara Desert and a portion of the Atlantic coast of West Africa. Due to the remoteness of the territory, Mauritania was one of the last areas of the African continent to be effectively colonized. The French, who ruled the country from 1903 until independence in 1960 , never really gained effective administrative control until the 1920s. The population, of approximately 2.5 million people, is almost entirely Muslim. The Mauritanian economy is very narrowly based. During the 1960s, the...

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A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,201 words
Illustration(s):
2

...for Mauritanian minerals, taking more than half of all the country’s exports. Mauritania’s poverty and vulnerability to shocks, whether from the climate or international commodity markets, have frequently obliged it to turn to the IMF. Popular protests against the ensuing austerity measures have usually been dealt with fairly harshly. Mauritania is, however, a major aid recipient and has also qualified for debt relief—which has allowed it to increase social spending. Contemporary politics Since independence in 1960 , political life in Mauritania has...

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The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
1,074 words

...independence in 1960 . A coup in 2005 brought the military to power. Most of Mauritania's population of slightly more than three million ( 2007 estimate) are Arab-Berber or of Sudanic origin and speak Hassaniyya, an Arabic-based dialect. The black African minorities, still concentrated in the south, have retained their respective languages. The official languages are Arabic and French, and nearly all Mauritanians are Muslims of the Maliki sect. Artistic activity in Mauritania following colonization has centered on its strong craft traditions, since there...

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,765 words

...in Mauritania that shares many of the implications and contradictions associated with the phenomenon seventy years earlier in the former Ottoman provinces. Although Mauritania is still heavily beholden to France for economic aid, it has increasingly turned to Arab (mainly Gulf state) financing. This and an acceptance by Maghribi governments of Mauritania 's military rulers as poor cousins have given new weight to the country 's Arab heritage and a new meaning to Islam in the national life of the country. The cleavage between baydanī and Sudanī in Mauritania 's...

Nouakchott, Mauritania

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Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...Mauritania The largest city and capital of Mauritania. Nouakchott is one of Africa’s younger capital cities. Positioned halfway between St. Louis, in Senegal , and Nouadhibou, in northern Mauritania , Nouakchott sits slightly inland from the Atlantic coast. It was originally a small fishing village frequented by desert traders traveling northward from Dakar and became the capital of Mauritania in 1959 . Colonial Mauritania had previously been governed from St. Louis and did not have a separate capital. As independence approached in the 1950s,...

Mauritania, Islam in

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The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
93 words

...Mauritania, Islam in Merchants and traders introduced Islam to West Africa in the eighth century. Virtually all of the country is Sunni Muslim; the Tijani and Qadiri Sufi brotherhoods are predominant. Upon independence from the French ( 1960 ), the country's founders promoted a common Islamic culture to supplant ethnic constructions of national identity. The combined effects of the Sahara war, over twenty years of increasing drought, and resulting urbanization brought heightened internal tensions. Growing foreign debt is the most urgent domestic concern. Most...

Koumbi Saleh, Mauritania

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Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...Saleh, Mauritania Twelfth-century capital of ancient Ghana; also known as Kumbi. Koumbi Saleh was the last capital of ancient Ghana (also known as Wagadu), a powerful and wealthy West African kingdom dominated by the Soninké people. The city’s archaeological remains lie 320 kilometers (200 miles) north of Bamako, Mali . Eleventh-century scholar Abu Ubaydalla al-Bakri wrote that the city consisted of two distinct towns: a Muslim town and a royal compound. Archaeologists have confirmed the existence of the much larger and denser Muslim town, covering...

Lusitania, Mauritania, and Aquitania

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
1,117 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of Lusitania and Mauritania was revolutionary. The four sets of turbines could produce 68,000 shaft horse power (shp) and would require the services of 176 furnaces firing 25 boilers in 4 boiler rooms. At full speed the Lusitania class would consume 600 tons of coal a day, and over 3,000 tons per crossing. Lusitania was built by John Brown’s Shipyard, Clydebank, Scotland , and the Mauritania by Swan, Hunter, and Wigham Richardson , Wallsend-on-the-Tyne, England . Lusitania was launched on June 7, 1906 . Mauritania was launched on...

Mauritania

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The Oxford Dictionary of Original Shakespearean Pronunciation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...Mauritania n ˌmɒrɪ'tɛ:nɪǝ sp Mauritania 1 ...

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New Oxford Rhyming Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Language reference
Length:
110 words

... • Campania , Catania, pannier • apnoea • Oceania , Tanya, Titania • biennia , denier, quadrennia, quinquennia, septennia, triennia • Albania , balletomania, bibliomania, crania, dipsomania, egomania, erotomania, kleptomania, Lithuania, Lusitania, mania, Mauritania, megalomania, miscellanea, monomania, nymphomania, Pennsylvania, Pomerania, pyromania, Rainier, Romania, Ruritania, Tasmania, Transylvania, Urania • Armenia , bergenia, gardenia, neurasthenia, ostopenia, proscenia, sarcopenia, schizophrenia, senior, Slovenia • Abyssinia ,...

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