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Martin, Luther

Subject: Law

(b. Piscataway, N.J., ca. 20 Feb. 1748; d. New York, N.Y., 10 July 1826), lawyer and statesman. Of humble origins, Martin graduated from the College of New Jersey (later ...

Luther, Martin

Luther, Martin (1483–1546)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
6,230 words

...work on Luther. Gritsch, Eric W. Martin, God's Court Jester: Luther in Retrospect . Reprint, Ramsey, N.J., 1991. Iserloh, Erwin . Luther zwischen Reform and Reformation . Münster, 1966. Junghans, Helmar . Leben und Werk Martin Luthers von 1526–1546 . 2 vols. Berlin, 1983. The important anthology commemorating the Luther anniversary. Kittelson, James M. Luther the Reformer: The Story of the Man and His Career . Minneapolis, 1986. Lehmann, Hartmut . Martin Luther in the American Imagination . Munich, 1988. Lohse, Bernhard . Martin Luther: An...

Luther, Martin

Luther, Martin (1483–1546)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
2,768 words

..., Here I Stand: A Life of Martin Luther (1951); A. G. Dickens , The German Nation and Martin Luther (1974); H. Bornkamm , Martin Luther in der Mittes seines Leben (posthumously ed. K. Bornkamm , Göttingen, 1979; Eng. tr., 1983); H. G. Haile , Luther: A Biography (New York, 1980; London, 1981); M. Lienhard , Martin Luther: Un temps, une vie, un message (1983); H. Junghans (ed.), Leben und Werk Martin Luthers von 1526 bis 1546: Festgabe zu seinem 500. Geburtstag (2 vols., 1983). M. Brecht , Martin Luther (3 vols., Stuttgart, 1981–7,...

Luther, Martin

Luther, Martin (1483)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Music (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music
Length:
56 words

..., Martin ( b Eisleben , 1483 ; d Eisleben , 1546 ) German Protestant church reformer . Player of lute and fl. Est. congregational singing. Wrote treatise on music ( 1538 ) and words of many hymns and chorales (possibly the music, too), best‐known being Ein’ feste Burg ist unser Gott (A safe stronghold our God is...

Luther, Martin

Luther, Martin (1483–1546)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
147 words

..., Martin ( 1483–1546 ) German Augustinian monk and originator of the Reformation in Europe. Luther was professor of biblical theology at Wittenberg when in 1517 he nailed his Ninety Five Theses to the door of the university chapel. Luther was much influenced by William of Ockham , from whom he derived a sceptical view of the edifices of scholasticism, and in particular Thomism . The leading idea of his theology was the doctrine of justification by faith or grace alone—a doctrine which irritated the Catholic church by denying any institutional...

Luther, Martin

Luther, Martin (1483–1546)   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
132 words

..., Martin ( 1483–1546 ) German Christian reformer who was a founder of Protestantism and leader of the Reformation . He was deeply concerned about the problem of salvation, deciding that it could not be attained by good works but was a free gift of God's grace. In 1517 Luther affixed his Ninety-five Theses , which included statements challenging the sale of indulgences , to the door of the Schlosskirche in Wittenberg. This action led to a quarrel between Luther and Church leaders, including the Pope. Luther decided that the Bible was the true source...

Luther, Martin

Luther, Martin (10 Nov 1483)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
878 words
Illustration(s):
1

...also served to instruct the common man in Luther's theology. Lucas Cranach I: Martin Luther as Junker Jörg , oil on panel, 521×346 mm, c. 1521 (Weimar, Kunstsammlungen zu Weimar); photo credit: Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY Writings D. Martin Luthers Werke: Kritische Gesamtausgabe (Weimar, 1883–; R Graz, 1964–) Bibliography R. H. Bainton : Here I Stand (Nashville, 1950) O. Thulin : ‘Luther in the Arts’, Encyclopedia of the Lutheran Church , ii (Minneapolis, 1965), pp. 1433–42 C. C. Christensen : ‘ Luther's Theology and the Use of Religious Art ’,...

Luther, Martin

Luther, Martin   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
1,361 words

...volumes ( 1883–1983 ) which has since 1986 been supplemented by a series of indexes and new editions, and in English translation as the ‘Philadelphia edition’ (55 vols., 1955–86 ). Martin Brecht , Martin Luther (3 vols., 1981–7; English trans. 1985–92); Heiko A. Oberman Luther: Man between God and the Devil (1989); A. G. Dickens , The German Nation and Martin Luther ...

Luther, Martin

Luther, Martin (1483–1546)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Companion to English Literature (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Literature
Length:
159 words

..., Martin ( 1483–1546 ) German theologian and leader of the Reformation in Germany. As an Augustinian monk he visited Rome in 1510 , and his experience there of ecclesiastical venality influenced his future career. Famously nailing his Theses to the door of the church at Wittenberg in 1517 , he attacked the principle of papal indulgences, and as a consequence was the subject of a papal ban pronounced at the Diet of Worms ( 1521 ). He left the monastic order and married, and devoted himself to forming the League of Protestantism. His translation of...

Luther, Martin

Luther, Martin (1483–1546)   Quick reference

Cyril Barrett

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
417 words

..., Martin ( 1483–1546 ) German religious reformer . Luther’s political thought was concerned with Church–State relationships, but he brought some new ideas to that protracted controversy. He was born at Eisleben in Saxony and studied classics and philosophy at Erfurt. In 1505 he entered the Augustinian Order, and, having studied theology, was ordained in 1507 . He lectured at Wittenberg ( 1508–46 ) on philosophy and Scripture (mostly New Testament). Basing himself on Paul and Augustine he evolved his doctrine of justification by faith alone. As was...

Luther, Martin

Luther, Martin   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
210 words

..., Martin ( 1483–1546 ), German leader of the Protestant Reformation who wrote treatises, commentaries on Scripture, tracts on theology and ecclesiastical abuses, hymns, sermons, and the first translation of the Bible in a common German vernacular. The Weimar edition ( 1883 ) of his works contains 104 volumes. While combating abuses of the Roman Catholic Church and promoting religious reforms, Luther and other leaders of the Reformation also committed themselves to education in the church, school, and home. Numerous works of reformed catechism and other...

Luther, Martin

Luther, Martin (1483–1546)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to German Literature (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
1,547 words

...to become a subject of later literary works, among which may be mentioned: Z. Werner's play Martin Luther oder Die Weihe der Kraft ( 1807 ), H. von Kleist's Novelle Michael Kohlhaas ( 1810 , in which Luther makes an important appearance), poems by Uhland (‘Die Ulme von Hirsau’) and by C. F. Meyer (‘Lutherlied’), and novels by L. Schücking ( Luther in Rom , 1870 ) and W. von Molo ( Mensch Luther , 1928 ). Among contemporary works concerned with Luther were Die wittembergisch Nachtigall ( 1523 ) by Hans Sachs, and the hostile Von dem Großen...

Luther, Martin

Luther, Martin (1483–1546)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
187 words

..., Martin ( 1483–1546 ) . German theologian , Professor of Philosophy and then of Theology at Wittenberg, leader of the Protestant Reformation. Luther is notorious among philosophers for speaking of reason as ‘the Devil's Whore’, which must be sacrificed as the enemy of God. He sees reason as having being corrupted by original sin, and therefore incapable of coming to a true estimate of the relation between God and man. The Mosaic law, which crushes men but which would at the same time bind God to a human contract, is the fruit of reason. Salvation can...

Luther, Martin

Luther, Martin (1483–1546)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to English Literature (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature
Length:
229 words

..., Martin ( 1483–1546 ) German theologian and leader of the Reformation in Germany. Born of humble family at Eisleben, he entered the Augustinian order in 1505 . As a monk he visited Rome in 1510 , and his experience there of ecclesiastical venality influenced his future career. Famously nailing his Theses to the door of the church at Wittenberg in 1517 , he attacked the principle of papal indulgences, and as a consequence was the subject of a papal ban pronounced at the Diet of Worms ( 1521 ). He left the monastic order and married, and devoted...

Martin, Luther

Martin, Luther (1748–1826)   Reference library

James H. Broussard

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

..., Luther ( 1748–1826 ) Luther Martin was a prominent lawyer and officeholder in Maryland. His most notable role was as a harsh critic of the adoption of the federal Constitution in 1787 . Martin was probably born on February 9, 1748 , near New Brunswick, New Jersey. He graduated Princeton (then the College of New Jersey) at the top of his class in 1766 and taught school for a few years. Believing that society should be governed by rational rules, he became a lawyer in 1771 and his practice flourished in Somerset County, Maryland. He helped lead...

Luther, Martin

Luther, Martin (1483–1546)   Reference library

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
395 words

..., Martin ( 1483–1546 ). Founder of the German Reformation . In 1505 he entered an Augustinian monastery. Ordained priest in 1507 , he was sent for further study at the newly founded University at Wittenberg, later to Erfurt. In 1512 he was made Doctor of Theology and was appointed professor of scripture at Wittenberg, a post he held for the rest of his life. Deeply troubled concerning personal guilt, he became convinced concerning justification by faith alone, finding help in the study of the Bible, Augustine 's anti-Pelagian writings, John...

Luther, Martin

Luther, Martin (1483–1546)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
169 words

..., Martin ( 1483–1546 ) German Protestant theologian , the principal figure of the German Reformation. From 1508 he taught at the University of Wittenberg, latterly as professor of scripture ( 1512–46 ). He began to preach the doctrine of justification by faith rather than by works; his attack on the sale of indulgences with his 95 theses ( 1517 ) was followed by further attacks on papal authority, and in 1521 Luther was condemned and excommunicated at the Diet of Worms. At a meeting with Swiss theologians at Marburg ( 1529 ) he opposed Zwingli...

Luther, Martin

Luther, Martin (1483–1546)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
699 words

..., Martin ( 1483–1546 ), founder of the German Reformation . In 1505 he entered a monastery of the Augustinian Hermits and in 1508 was sent to teach moral philosophy at the newly founded university of Wittenberg . He became professor of biblical exegesis here in 1511 , retaining this position until his death. Initially Luther seems to have adopted a form of biblical exegesis and theology of justification similar to that of Nominalism , allowing people a definite, if limited, role in their own justification. In the years 1512–19 he came to...

Luther, Martin

Luther, Martin (1483–1546)   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
402 words

..., Martin ( 1483–1546 ). The impact upon France of the great German Reformer's writings and campaigns was most marked in the three decades following his original protest at Wittenberg in 1517 , when his teachings on justification by faith, the bondage of the will, consubstantiation, mankind's total depravity, and the iniquities of Rome, were fiercely debated. In later years the French Reformation was dominated by the teachings of Calvin . As early as February 1519 Luther's 95 theses and his Resolutiones expounding them were being read and welcomed in...

Martin, Luther

Martin, Luther (20 Feb. 1748)   Reference library

Charles F. Hobson

The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Law
Length:
419 words

..., Luther (b. Piscataway, N.J., ca. 20 Feb. 1748 ; d. New York, N.Y., 10 July 1826 ), lawyer and statesman. Of humble origins, Martin graduated from the College of New Jersey (later Princeton University) in 1766 . After studying law, he established a flourishing law practice on the eastern shore of Maryland and Virginia. In 1778 he was appointed state attorney general, a post he held (with interruptions) for the next forty years. As a delegate to the Federal Convention in 1787 , Martin championed the cause of the small states and opposed extensive...

Luther, Martin

Luther, Martin (1483–1546)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Christian Art and Architecture (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
939 words

..., Martin ( 1483–1546 ) was the founder of the Reformation. He came of peasant stock in Saxony, received a good education, and went to Erfurt University in 1501 . In 1505 , he entered a Reformed Augustinian monastery in Erfurt, was ordained in 1507 , and in 1508 went to Wittenberg University to lecture on moral philosophy. In 1510 he was sent to Rome by his Order, and though deeply impressed by Rome as the hub of the Christian world and a place sanctified by the blood of many martyrs, he was scandalized by the luxury and licence of the court of Pope...

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