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Martial

[Na] Roman writer, born at Biblius, Spain, in c.ad 43, who moved to Rome in ad 66. The majority of his writings are epigrams which afford valuable information on every aspect of ...

Martial

Martial (38/41–101/4)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to English Literature (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature
Length:
125 words

... ( Marcus Valerius Martialis ) ( ad 38/41–101/4 ) Roman epigrammatist of Spanish origin. He wrote about 1,500 epigrams, the best known published in twelve books; in their formal perfection they are indebted to the example of Catullus . They are usually direct addresses to individuals and include celebrations of friendship and the country life, flattery of the emperor Domitian, and satirical and often obscene portraits of the inhabitants of contemporary Rome. Martial was much imitated by 17th-century poets, notably Ben Jonson , Robert Herrick ,...

Martial

Martial (ad 38/41–101/4)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Companion to English Literature (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Literature
Length:
88 words

... ( Marcus Valerius Martialis ) ( ad 38/41–101/4 ) Roman epigrammatist of Spanish origin. His 1,500 epigrams are usually direct addresses to individuals and include celebrations of friendship and the country life, flattery of the emperor Domitian, and satirical and often obscene portraits of the inhabitants of contemporary Rome. Martial was much imitated by 17th-century poets, notably Ben Jonson , Robert Herrick , and Abraham Cowley . Translations include Thomas May 's Selected Epigrams ( 1629 ) and Peter Porter 's After Martial ( 1972...

Martial

Martial (38)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,306 words

...Martial provides an image of a poet bereft of his subject material and thus inspiration. Martial died in Spain sometime after the publication of his last book in 101 or 102 and before Pliny the Younger's record of Martial's death in 104 ( Epistulae 3.21). Although superficially Martial's oeuvre seems to consist of myriad bite-size disparate epigrams, modern critics propose not a linear reading of Martial's poetry but one that recognizes his poetic body as formed of clusters and cycles of epigrams that entail and discuss related topics. Martial...

Martial

Martial (ad 38×41–101×4)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Western Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
96 words

... , Marcus Valerius Martialis ( ad 38×41–101×4 ). Latin poet active in the Flavian period in Rome. His series of epigrams for attachment to gifts for the festival of Saturnalia are a fount of information on paintings and statues. Both he and his rival Statius describe a dinner party hosted by the connoisseur Novius Vindex at which the centrepiece was a bronze statuette of the Hercules Epitrapezios purported to be by the sculptor Lysippus (9.43,9.44). Martial includes a reference to the inscription on the base: ‘of Lysippus’. Lori-Ann Touchette...

Martial

Martial ([Na])   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
48 words

... ( Marcus Valerius Martialis ) [Na] Roman writer , born at Biblius, Spain, in c . ad 43 , who moved to Rome in ad 66 . The majority of his writings are epigrams which afford valuable information on every aspect of life at the time. He died in ad 104...

Martial

Martial   Reference library

Mario Citroni

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
2,702 words

...of the Pisonian conspiracy brought ruin to the families of Seneca and Piso. Martial continued to be on friendly terms with the widow of Lucan (Seneca’s nephew and another victim) and with Quintus Ovidius, formerly connected with the circle of Seneca (7. 44, 45): it is possible that Martial’s property at Nomentum and the neighbouring estate of Quintus Ovidius were both gifts from Seneca, who had considerable holdings in the area. These links do not, however, mean that Martial was connected with the intellectual opposition to Domitian , whose favour he...

Martial

Martial   Quick reference

Mario Citroni

Who's Who in the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
2,669 words

...of the Pisonian conspiracy brought ruin to the families of Seneca and Piso. Martial continued to be on friendly terms with the widow of Lucan (Seneca's nephew and another victim) and with Quintus Ovidius, formerly connected with the circle of Seneca (7. 44, 45): it is possible that Martial's property at Nomentum and the neighbouring estate of Quintus Ovidius were both gifts from Seneca, who had considerable holdings in the area. These links do not, however, mean that Martial was connected with the intellectual opposition to Domitian , whose favour he...

Martial

Martial   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,233 words

...of Roman upper‐class society. He was also in contact with many distinguished writers: Quintilian , Pliny the Younger , Silius Italicus , Frontinus , Juvenal . Martial became popular. His success gave him a central role in the literary scene and made it increasingly natural that his epigrams should be used to celebrate official events connected with imperial propaganda. Martial complains that this success did not bring him financial reward: without any copyright in his works, he depended on patrons ( see patronage, literary , Roman ). He...

Martial

Martial   Reference library

Mario Citroni

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
2,910 words

...J. P. Sullivan , Martial: The Unexpected Classic (1991); M. Citroni , Maia (1969, 1988); R. R. Nauta , Poetry for Patrons (2002). Dating L. Friedlaender see introd. to comm. (1886); M. Citroni Illinois Classical Studies 1989. Imperial cult O. Weinreich , Studien zu Martial (1928); F. Sauter , Der römische Kaiserkult bei Martial und Statius (1934); K. Scott , The Imperial Cult under the Flavians (1936). Poetic technique K. Prinz , Martial und die zeitgenössische Rhetorik (1959); E. Siedschlag , Zur Form von Martials Epigrammen (1977); W....

Martial

Martial (40–103)   Reference library

Hanneke Wilson

The Oxford Companion to Wine (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2023

...and when Martial satirizes the classical cult of old wine (old wine was always preferred to new and was known by its consular year), he invents a wine that has not even got a consular year, because it was laid down before the Republic (13. 111). He generally presumes detailed knowledge about wine on the reader’s part, as for instance in 2. 53, 4. 49, 3. 49. The reader needs to know which wines were good and which were not in order to get the point of the epigram. At the end of Book 13 (106–25) is a series of epigrams listing 21 types of wine. Martial expresses...

Martial

Martial (40104)   Reference library

Brewer's Famous Quotations

Reference type:
Quotation
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Quotations
Length:
117 words

...Martial 40 104 Spanish-born Latin epigrammatist Rus in urbe [Country in the town]. Epigrammata , Bk 12, No. 57. Remark applied, for example, to a garden which provides rustic simplicity within the sophistication of the town. In May 1969 I visited a friend who had a cottage in the country near Bradford-on-Avon – but it wasn't a very rustic place. Indeed, it had almost a suburban or even an urban aspect to it. And so I pronounced it ‘ urbs in rure ’. Subsequently, I have found that exactly the same joke was a regular feature in Punch at the turn of the...

Martial

Martial (c.ad 40–c.104)   Quick reference

Oxford Essential Quotations (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Quotation
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Quotations
Length:
260 words

...0 Martial c. ad 40 – c. 104 Roman epigrammatist , born in Spain Non amo te, Sabidi, nec possum dicere quare: Hoc tantum possum dicere, non amo te. I don't love you, Sabidius, and I can't tell you why; all I can tell you is this, that I don't love you. Epigrammata bk. 1, no. 32; see Brown Non amo te Non amo te, Sabidi I don't love you can't tell you why Fair Concord, ever abide by their couch, and to so well-matched a pair may Venus ever be propitious. Epigrammata bk. 4, no. 13 Laudant illa sed ista legunt. They praise those works, but read...

Martial

Martial (c.ad 40–c.104)   Reference library

Oxford Dictionary of Quotations (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Quotation
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Quotations
Length:
552 words

... Martial c. ad 40 – c. 104 Roman epigrammatist , born in Spain Non est, crede mihi, sapientis dicere ‘Vivam’: Sera nimis vita est crastina: vive hodie. Believe me, wise men don't say ‘I shall live to do that’, tomorrow's life's too late; live today. Epigrammata bk. 1, no. 15 sapientis dicere ‘ vivam ’ Sera nimis vita est crastina live to do that tomorrow 's life's too late live today Non amo te, Sabidi, nec possum dicere quare: Hoc tantum possum dicere, non amo te. I don't love you, Sabidius, and I can't tell you why; all I can tell you is...

court-martial

court-martial n.   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

...martial n. pl. courts-martial or court-martials a judicial court for trying members of the armed services accused of offenses against military law: they appeared before a court-martial | he was found guilty by court-martial. v. -martialed , -martialing ; Brit -martialled , -martialling try (someone) by such a...

martial law

martial law   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

... law military government involving the suspension of ordinary...

Martial Arts

Martial Arts   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
51 words

... Arts . For discussion of martial arts in Asia, see Asian Martial Arts . See also China , overview article; Chhau ; India , article on History of Indian Dance ; Kathakaḷi ; and for parallel traditions in Thailand , see Khōn . For stylized self-defense as dance in Indonesia, see Indonesia , article on Javanese Dance Traditions and Pencak...

court martial

court martial   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
59 words

...martial Court of the armed services for trial of service persons accused of breaking military law. Offences range from murder and robbery to those specific to the armed services, such as desertion. Court martials do not utilize the trial by jury system. Members of the court martial are serving officers, in certain cases advised by a judge...

martial law

martial law   Reference library

Dictionary of the Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
24 words

... law The temporary resort to military rule and the suspension of constitutional principles during wartime and other exceptional circumstances. See also emergency powers...

martial law

martial law   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Disaster Management

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Environment, Sociology
Length:
107 words

...martial law The transferral of power from a civil government to the highest-ranking military officer, usually imposed temporarily if the civil authorities have failed to function effectively. While typically used in cases of political instability, martial law is also applicable to disasters caused by, for example, major natural disasters . Most countries, however, would declare a state of emergency instead of imposing martial law in disaster situations. US troops operated under martial law in the aftermath of the San Francisco earthquake in 1906 . The...

martial law

martial law   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
52 words

... law Maintenance of civic order by military personnel. Martial law may be declared on a local short-term basis by a government in an emergency, as when sending in the army to deal with pockets of civil unrest. It may also be declared on a nationwide, long-term basis following a military...

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