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Marquis de Condorcet

(1743–94) French mathematician and social theorist. Condorcet was educated by Jesuits, and became the permanent Secretary of the Académie des Sciences, for which he was qualified ...

Condorcet, Marquis de

Condorcet, Marquis de (1743–94)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
178 words

..., Marquis de ( 1743–94 ) French mathematician and social theorist . Condorcet was educated by Jesuits, and became the permanent Secretary of the Académie des Sciences, for which he was qualified by his mathematical writings, in 1776 . The eulogies ( Éloges ) for dead members that he composed are quintessential documents of the French Enlightenment . Condorcet believed in the progress and perfectibility of mankind, aided by the application of mathematical methods to the moral and political sciences. His Essai sur l’application de l’analyse à la...

Marquis de Condorcet

Marquis de Condorcet (1743–94)   Reference library

Oxford Dictionary of Quotations (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Quotation
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Quotations
Length:
131 words

...0Marquis0de Marquis de Condorcet 1743 – 94 French philosopher As one meditates about the nature of the moral sciences one really cannot avoid the conclusion that since, like the physical sciences, they rest upon observation of the facts, they ought to follow the same methods, acquire a language no less exact and precise, and so attain to the same degree of certainty. If some being alien to our species were to set himself to study us he would find no difference between these two studies, and would examine human society as we do that of bees or...

Condorcet, Antoine Nicolas, Marquis de

Condorcet, Antoine Nicolas, Marquis de (1743–94)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
73 words

..., Antoine Nicolas, Marquis de ( 1743–94 ) French philosopher and politician . He was the only prominent French philosophe to play any real part in the events of the Revolution. As a Girondin and a friend of the leading revolutionaries Emmanuel Sieyès (1748–1836) and Jacques-Pierre Brissot (1754–93) he was elected to the National Convention. In October 1793 he was condemned by the Revolutionary Tribunal and eventually poisoned himself to avoid the guillotine....

Condorcet, Jean‐Antoine‐Nicolas, marquis de

Condorcet, Jean‐Antoine‐Nicolas, marquis de (1749–94)   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
500 words

..., Jean‐Antoine‐Nicolas, marquis de ( 1749–94 ). ‘The last of the philosophes ’, as Michelet called him, was a mathematician and scientist who involved himself in Revolutionary politics and perished by it, leaving an exemplary statement of Enlightenment beliefs. This level‐headed rationalist has acquired a tragic aura from the fact that his most famous work was written in the shadow of imminent death. He came of a noble Picardy family, studied with the Jesuits, and soon showed remarkable mathematical gifts. This brought him to the attention of ...

Condorcet, M. J. A. N. de Caritat, marquis de

Condorcet, M. J. A. N. de Caritat, marquis de (1743–94)   Quick reference

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
989 words

..., M. J. A. N. de Caritat, marquis de ( 1743–94 ) French scientist , revolutionary, and political theorist . Born into the aristocracy, and originally intended to be a priest or a soldier, Condorcet escaped both by becoming a mathematician and soon being taken under the wings of powerful patrons associated with the Academy of Sciences in Paris and with the Encyclopédie . His professional career was made in the Academy, whose permanent secretary he became. In the 1760s he established himself as a leading mathematician with his work on integral...

Condorcet, Marie-Jean-Antoine-Nicolas de Caritat, Marquis de

Condorcet, Marie-Jean-Antoine-Nicolas de Caritat, Marquis de  

Dictionary of the Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference

..., Marie-Jean-Antoine-Nicolas de Caritat, Marquis de ( 1743–1794 ) A French mathematician and political philosopher who pioneered the study of voting systems and promoted the extension of scientific reason to matters of public life. Born an aristocrat, Condorcet broke with convention in pursuing a career as a mathematician—a field in which he produced innovative work in calculus and probability. He eventually became one of the chief contributors to the Encyclopédie in the 1750s and 1760s and an important figure in the Académie des Sciences. When the...

Condorcet, Marie-Jean-Antoine-Nicolas de Caritat, Marquis de

Condorcet, Marie-Jean-Antoine-Nicolas de Caritat, Marquis de (1743–94)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
139 words

..., Marie-Jean-Antoine-Nicolas de Caritat, Marquis de ( 1743–94 ) A leading contributor to the Encyclopedie (1751–65) , and first supporter then victim of the French Revolution, Condorcet is chiefly remembered for his theory of human progress . This was presented in his Sketch for a Historical Picture of the Progress of the Human Mind , written while in hiding. He distinguished a series of ten progressive epochs or phases in human history, and like many of his contemporaries, emphasized the indefinitely progressive potentiality of the growth of...

Condorcet, Marie-Jean-Antoine-Nicolas Caritat, Marquis de

Condorcet, Marie-Jean-Antoine-Nicolas Caritat, Marquis de   Reference library

M. J. Inwood

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
181 words

..., Marie-Jean-Antoine-Nicolas Caritat, Marquis de ( 1743–94 ). French philosopher , mathematician , political theorist , and a moderate revolutionary who died in prison. He developed ‘social mathematics’, applying mathematics and probability theory to social and political affairs. He analysed complex decisions, such as an election between three candidates, where the candidate selected by a simple majority may not be preferred by the voters when they compare each candidate with every other candidate. Complex decisions should thus be reduced to a series...

Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas Caritat Condorcet, Marquis de

Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas Caritat Condorcet, Marquis de (1743–94)   Reference library

Oxford Dictionary of Scientific Quotations

Reference type:
Quotation
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Quotations
Length:
85 words

...Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas Caritat Condorcet , Marquis de 1743 – 94 French mathematician and natural philosopher [All phenomena] are equally susceptible of being calculated, and all that is necessary, to reduce the whole of nature to laws similar to those which Newton discovered with the aid of the calculus, is to have a sufficient number of observations and a mathematics that is complex enough. Unpublished Manuscript. Quoted in Frank E. Manuel, The Prophets of Paris (1962), 73 susceptible of being calculated sufficient number of...

Marquis de Condorcet

Marquis de Condorcet  

(1743–94)French mathematician and social theorist. Condorcet was educated by Jesuits, and became the permanent Secretary of the Académie des Sciences, for which he was qualified by his mathematical ...
Political Economy

Political Economy   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,138 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...period drew attention to longer-term dilemmas centring on Britain's capacity to support its growing population from domestic sources. T. R. *Malthus 's Essay on the Principle of Population was first published in 1798 as a polemical response to William *Godwin and the Marquis de Condorcet's post-revolutionary optimism about individual and social perfectibility. Revised in 1803 , and over the whole war and postwar period, Malthus 's Essay became the first major work since the Wealth of Nations to express and address these social and economic problems....

Condorcet winner

Condorcet winner  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The option, or candidate, in a multicandidate election, which wins a simple majority against each of the others when every pair of candidates is compared. Voting rules inspired by Condorcet seek to ...
Condorcet (Grouchy), Sophie, marquise de

Condorcet (Grouchy), Sophie, marquise de  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
(1764–1822)French feminist writer. Alleged by their enemies to be the malign influence behind her husband Condorcet's support for republicanism and feminism during the French Revolution. Her ...
second ballot

second ballot  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Class of voting procedures in which candidates for a single‐member seat first fight a plurality election. Any candidate who wins more than half of the votes is elected. Otherwise, a second ballot is ...
cycle

cycle  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Any situation in which a voting procedure, choosing among multiple options, would choose A over B, B over C…, i over j, and j over A. The best‐known example is the cycle in simple majority rule, ...
single-peakedness

single-peakedness  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The property that the available options can be ranked along a continuum in such a way that every voter's preferences can be represented in one of three ways: 1 she likes the ‘left’most option best ...
voting paradox

voting paradox  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
Suppose that three people, Alice, Brian, and Cait, are choosing between three candidates, Primus, Secunda, and Tertius, for a job. Alice prefers Primus to Secunda to Tertius. Brian prefers Secunda ...
Olympe de Gouges

Olympe de Gouges  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
(1748–1793),French patriot, dramatist, political writer, and advocate for women's rights who was executed during the French Revolution. She was born Marie Gouze in Montauban (in the southwest of ...
perfectibility

perfectibility  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
The idea of the perfectibility of man emerges in the 18th century, with the relaxation of the theological barriers protecting the property for God alone. In Enlightenment writers such as Condorcet ...
éloge

éloge  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
[ay-lohzh]The French term for a eulogy or encomium, and in literary contexts especially for a solemn speech, usually published later as a kind of obituary tribute, given to one of the great French ...

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